The Story Criteria

Stephen W. Hiemstra, Simple FaithBy Stephen W. Hiemstra

In a world in which all variables can change at once, no absolute proof of God’s existence can logically be given. This does not mean, however, that we have no evidence of God’s existence or that we should resign to the “big gulp” theory of faith, in which we simply take everything on faith.

Evidence of God’s Work in the World

The Bible talks extensively about truth. For example, we read:

We are from God. Whoever knows God listens to us; whoever is not from God does not listen to us. By this we know the Spirit of truth and the spirit of error. Beloved, let us love one another, for love is from God, and whoever loves has been born of God and knows God. Anyone who does not love does not know God, because God is love. (1 John 4:6-8 ESV)

Here, the Apostle John sees love as the proof of God’s existence and revelation to us. While I find the current pre-occupation with love unhelpful (because of the many false definitions of love), note that John is doing two things in this passage. 

First, John assumes that we can empirically observe the presence of God in people. This implies that, although there is not absolute proof of God’s existence in a logical sense, we still have evidence.

Second, this evidence of God’s existence is relational in nature. Love requires an object; it does not stand alone. In that sense, it is relational.

Wisdom from Modeling

As an economist, I built financial models for highly complex companies. The reason for these models was simple: the companies were too complex and market transactions took place too quickly to manage them by rule of thumb. To manage without a model would spell doom in a fast-paced market. Consequently, the criteria for evaluating any particular model proved simple: did this new model perform better than the previous one?

Criteria for Story Telling

Expanding on John’s relational evidence of God’s existence and our modeling criteria , we can see the importance of story telling in demonstrating the existence of God. In a world where all variables move at the same time, we can tell stories about how this complicated world points to God—or not. The criteria then for faith becomes—is the Christian story about God more credible than alternative stories about how the world works? (Sacks)

This criteria should sound familiar. In the scientific method, we normally test the validity of a primary hypothesis against a secondary hypothesis. Substituting the word, story, for the word, hypothesis, we find that the criteria is already well established in modern period. Hart writes:

 “It may be impossible to provide perfectly irrefutable evidence for one’s conclusions, but it is certainly possible to amass evidence sufficient to confirm them beyond plausible doubt.”(Hart 2009, ix)

From statistical theory, we know that observations (or data) do not themselves explain anything. Drawing inferences from observations requires a theory (or story). Observations can either confirm or reject any particular theory.

Applying the Criteria

The usual answer is yes. The Christian story about God is not only the most credible story about how the world works, but it is also the most desirable. If we emulate God both individually and communally as a church, then we become a beacon of light in the world around us. Is it any wonder that the abolishment of slavery and the promotion of women’s rights were nineteenth century Christian initiatives? (Dayton) 

Most of the time when people want to argue that the answer is no, they neglect to consider the entire human condition, from birth to death, and focus on individual autonomy. The acceptability of abortion, for example, focuses on the rights of women, usually professional women, while placing a lower weight on family, intergenerational continuity, and economic growth. Lower birth rates in the United States and Western Europe have led to stagnating economies because economic growth requires population growth that is frustrated by the frequent use of abortion.

Reference

Dayton, Donald W. 1976. Discovering an Evangelical Heritage. Peabody: Hendrickson Publishers.

Hart, David Bentley. 2009. Atheist Delusions: The Christian Revolution and Its Fashionable Enemies. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Sacks, Jonah. 2012. Winning the Story Wars: Why Those Who Tell—and Live—the Best Stories Will Rule the Future. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.

The Story Criteria

Also see:

A Roadmap of Simple Faith

Christian Spirituality 

Looking Back 

A Place for Authoritative Prayer 

Other ways to engage online:

Author site: http://www.StephenWHiemstra.net, Publisher site: http://www.T2Pneuma.com.

Newsletter at: http://bit.ly/Hebrew_Heart

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Mason Counsels Suicide Prevention

Review of Karen Mason, Suicide PreventionKaren Mason.[1] 2014. Preventing Suicide: A Handbook for Pastors, Chaplains, and Pastoral Counselors. Downers Grove: IVP Books.

Review by Stephen W. Hiemstra

If you are contemplating suicide, help is available.

Call: 1-800-273-TALK.[2]

Earlier this month with the death of two prominent celebrities, Kate Spade (June 6, 2018) and Anthony Bourdain (June 8, 2018), the epidemic of suicide in America has become more obvious to the public. The New York Times reported already in 2017 that suicide rates reached a thirty-year high (Tavernise). For those of us personally touched by suicide, the more surprising report is that, like Kate and Anthony, the fastest growing demographic affected by suicide is the fifty-plus age group, which is historically anomalous—we do not expect successful people to kill themselves.

What, if anything, can be done about it?

Introduction

In her book Preventing Suicide, professor of counseling and psychology at Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary, Karen Mason, cites philosopher William James who“regarded religious faith as the most powerful safeguard against suicide.” (17) Her focus in writing is “on suicidal acts that include at least some intent to die.”(22) This definition is important because not all acts of self-harm are suicidal. For example, cutters, usually young people in deep emotional pain, normally use the pain of cutting themselves to distract their minds from their emotional trauma, but do not intent to kill themselves.

What Can Be Done?

Mason sees the pastors, chaplain, and pastoral care workers as able to reduce suicide rates by:

  1. “Teaching a theology of life and death, including moral objections to suicide.
  2. Teaching theodicy, or how to understand and manage suffering.
  3. Directly engaging the issue of suicide—stigma free—when people become suicidal, attempt suicide or die by suicide.
  4. Teaching how to build a life worth living with meaningful purpose and belongingness.
  5. Offering community where relationship skills are learned and practiced and where those who need support get it.
  6. Partnering with others in preventing suicide.”(18)

She sees the goals of suicide prevention as being realistically achievable, but those who attempt suicide must be taken care of. Those who attempt suicide but do not die are at much higher risk of succeeding on a second attempt—“A prior suicide attempt is the single strongest risk factor for death by suicide.”(114)

Personal Experiences

Suicide has been a part of my life experience since my youth.

The year before I came to Christ at age 13, my best friend’s father shot himself to death.

During my graduate program at Cornell University (1976-1979), I found myself in the midst of a cluster of suicides on campus. So many suicides occurred in my first fall on campus that students demonstrated to close the school until something was done. One student reportedly jumped off a bridge (Cornell is located on a mountain) and, after suffering only a broken leg, crawled up to the bridge a second time and jumped again, this time to his death. During that fall, one of my housemates attempted to overdose herself and within my circle of friends we knew of half-a-dozen suicides.

During my clinical pastoral education at Providence Hospital in 2011-12, I met with and counseled numerous patients who had attempted suicide, either through my work in the emergency department or psychiatrics. I also counseled a number of cutters. Being the first one to visit seriously with someone after an attempted suicide is a heavy, burdensome responsibility. After such visits, I often ended up in the chapel in prayer.

During the past twelve months, two fifty-plus age men in my family circle of friends killed themselves. One of those men was someone that I had attempted to reach out to and provide support, but he proved unwilling.

Organization of the Book

Mason writes in nine chapters preceded by acknowledgements and an introduction and followed by a conclusion and notes. The chapters are:

  1. “Who Dies by Suicide?
  2. Shattering Myths About Suicide.
  3. Suicide and Christian Theology.
  4. Theories of Suicide.
  5. Helping Someone in a Suicide Crisis.
  6. Helping a Survivor of Attempted Suicide.
  7. Helping the Helpers.
  8. Helping Suicide Survivors.
  9. Helping the Faith Community.” (vii)

What is interesting about these topics is the range of issues and people involved. Mason makes the point that suicide clusters—copycat suicides—can be dramatic.

Warning Signs

Mason cites a serious loss as triggering event, which can be a legal problem, financial difficulties, relational breakup, or unemployment. Other warning signs include:

  • “Talking about or writing about death, dying, or suicide.
  • Threatening to kill oneself.
  • A worsening mental health problem such as depression, especially when accompanied by agitation.
  • Dramatic brightening of mood after a period of depression.
  • Seeking access to means, such as hoarding pills.
  • Reckless behavior, such as increased substance abuse.
  • Decreased hygiene, such as not showering.
  • Social withdrawal.
  • Preparatory behavior, such as giving away prized possessions.”(84).

Those contemplating suicide may talk to friends, family, and/or clergy before attempting suicide. “Based on large national surveys, it is estimated that for every fourteen suicides per hundred thousand people each year, approximately five hundred people attempt suicide and three thousand think about it.”(28)

Assessment

Karen Mason’s Preventing Suicideis an important resource for caregivers who assist those who think about, attempt, and commit suicide. I wish that I had read this book years ago because the guidance that Mason offers would have been helpful, particularly in dealing with those who survived an initial suicide attempt. Because suicide rates have reached crisis levels, this is a book that caregivers ought to read and discuss.

Reference

Tavernise, Sabrina. 2016. “U.S. Suicide Rate Surges to a 30-Year High”New York Times. April 22. Online: https://nyti.ms/2k9vzFZ, Accessed: 13 March 2017.

Footnotes

[1]http://www.gordonconwell.edu/academics/view-faculty-member.cfm?faculty_id=57862&grp_id=8948; @ivpbooks.

[2]Or text: CONNECT to 741741. National Suicide Prevention Lifeline. https://suicidepreventionlifeline.org.

Mason Counsels Suicide Prevention

Also see:

Books, Films, and Ministry

Other ways to engage online:

Author site: http://www.StephenWHiemstra.net, Publisher site: http://www.T2Pneuma.com.

Newsletter at: http://bit.ly/Hebrew_Heart

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Promote Your Writing Activities in Marketing for Writers Conference, September 9, 2018, Fairfax, Virginia

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Be a Sponsor!

Capital Christian Writers and the Northern Virginia Christian Writers Fellowship have teamed up in 2018 to host a new conference: Marketing for Writers.

Promote your writing and publishing products and services in our vendor brochure or, for more exposure, sponsor a break or lunch.
 
For more information about vendor options see: (click here)
 
Register to attend our conference at (click here)
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Promote Your Writing Activities in Marketing for Writers Conference, September 9, 2018, Fairfax, Virginia

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Monday Monologues: Telling Stories, July 16, 2018 (podcast)

Stephen W. Hiemstra, www.StephenWHiemstra.net
Stephen W. Hiemstra, 2017

By Stephen W. Hiemstra

In today’s podcast, I pray about money and talk about telling stories.

To listen, click on the link below.

After listening, please click here to take a brief listener survey (10 questions).

Monday Monologues: Telling Stories, July 16, 2018 (podcast)

Also see:

Monday Monologue On March 26, 2018 

Other ways to engage online:

Author site: http://www.StephenWHiemstra.net, Publisher site: http://www.T2Pneuma.com.

Newsletter at: http://bit.ly/Hebrew_Heart

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Prayer about Money and Possessions

Pencils by Stephen W. Hiemstra
Art by Stephen W. Hiemstra

By Stephen W. Hiemstra

Most Generous Father,

We praise you for your abundant generosity that was obvious in the wedding of Cana, the feeding of the five thousand, and the provision of fish to the disciples.

We confess that we have not always emulated you in our own dealings with time, talents, money, or possessions.

We thank you for remembering us with health, family, and blessings too numerous to even list.

Forgive our tightfistedness, our numbness to the needs of others, and our willingness to fight for what we think is ours alone. In the power of your Holy Spirit, teach us to be godly stewards of our time, money, and talents, and to know when enough is enough. In Christ, may we reflect the generosity that you have shown us.

In Jesus’ name, Amen.

Prayer about Money and Possessions

Also see:

Giving Thanks 

A Place for Authoritative Prayer 

Other ways to engage online:

Author site: http://www.StephenWHiemstra.net, Publisher site: http://www.T2Pneuma.com.

Newsletter at: http://bit.ly/Hebrew_Heart

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The Surprising Role of Story Telling

Stephen W. Hiemstra, Simple FaithBy Stephen W. Hiemstra

Postmodernism is hard to define precisely because, unlike modernism, it engages in nonlinear arguments that are hard to track if you are trained exclusively in linear thinking.  Postmodernism resembles a collage, a hanging ornament with unique pieces that balance one another but may be completely different taken individually. Before explaining what I mean here, let me digress to borrow a form argument from William Placer for why the modern age has given way to the postmodern age.

Is the Modern Era Over? 

Placher starts his discussion of the Enlightenment with the father of the Enlightenment, René Descartes, writing:

“Descartes had set the goal of seeking a foundation for knowledge, but modern philosophy soon divided between empiricists who looked for that foundation in bare, uninterrupted sensations [things you see, hear, feel, taste…] and rationalists who sought it in logically unchallengeable first truths.” (Placher 1989, 26)

For empiricists, a problem quickly emerged because:

“We cannot build knowledge on a foundation of uninterpreted sense-data, because we cannot know particular sense-data in isolation from the conceptual schemes we use to organize them.” (Placher 1989, 29)

If this is not obvious, think about how one knows that a light is red and different from yellow or green. In order to recognize the difference, one needs to understand the definition of red and how it differs from yellow or green. Without knowing that definition, red is not a distinct color. We teach colors to children at a young age so they seem obvious to us as adults, but to untaught kids colors have yet to be learned. The definition of red is what is meant here as a conceptual scheme.

For logicians, Placher (1989, 33) observes:

“What we cannot do is find some point that is uniquely certain by definition, guaranteed to hold regardless of any empirical discoveries, independent of any other elements in the our system.”

Placher (1989, 32) notes the definition of a mammal, “a warm-blooded animal with hair which bears live young”, had to change with the discovery of the platypus, a mammal that lays eggs. While the problem posed by the platypus seems trivial, Placher notes after referencing Russell’s paradox that:

“If our definitions in mathematics or logic lead to problems, we may decide to change them, but we always have more than one choice [of definition].” (Placer 1989. 34)

In conclusion, Placher (1989, 34) cites Wittgenstein observing:

“when we find the foundations, it turns out they are being held up by the rest of the house. If theologians try to defend their claims by starting with basic, foundational truths that any rational person would have to believe or observations independent of theory and assumptions, they are trying to do something that our best philosophers tell us is impossible.”

In other words, the attempt by Enlightenment scholars to find a defensible basis for objective truth has failed and we are now in the postmodern era where it can be said: “how you stand on an issue depends on where you sit”.

A Picture of Postmodernism from Mathematical Modelling

Placer basically argues that the foundations of science, the idea of objective truth, cannot be validated as a logical framework. Let me offer a logical argument for what he is arguing from my modeling background in economics.

The typical argument in economic modeling is metaphorical—the economy can, for example, be characterized in terms of aggregate demand where demand is divided into different components, like consumption, investment, and government spending. To perform a mental experiment, we might change government spending while holding consumption and investment constant. The effect on aggregate demand is accordingly limited to the effect of the change in government spending. The size of the effect will be determined by statistical estimates of past aggregate demand. 

This type of modeling is referred to as a static equilibrium model because we make our forecasts based on only one changed variable at a time. This is a linear argument and quite familiar to economists trained in the modern period. What changed in the postmodern period was the idea of allowing all the variables to change simultaneously—the introduction of general equilibrium models. Mathematically, models could only be approximated, not statistically estimated in the prior sense. 

The reason for this intractability arises because the historical experience likely does not offer observations on changes that might be expected in the future. In the 1980s, for example, we saw interest rates rise to levels never previously seen; the Great Recession likewise saw housing prices fall further than ever previously observed or even contemplated. 

Postmodern Dilemma

This hypothetical modeling complexity is precisely the same problem faced by postmodern society—too many cultural norms have been altered too quickly. With the traditional sources of personal stability—family, work, church, education, technology, attitudes about gender, authority, freedom—in motion, we observe high levels of anxiety, depression, and suicide. 

In this context of instability, we hear professions in all callings imaginable telling stories about the more complex cultural system will evolve. The older process of imaging one change at a time simply does not work. The typical reactions that we observe are either to rely on our faith that God will guide us or to chase after the myriad of untested assumptions and stories that postmodern advertisers can offer (Sacks). The role of Christian apologetics is to make sense of the new environment and how the Christian message can lead us, our kids, and our neighbors back to God.

References

Placher, William C. 1989. Unapologetic Theology: A Christian Voice in a Pluralistic Conversation. Louisville: Westminster John Knox Press.

Sacks, Jonah. 2012. Winning the Story Wars: Why Those Who Tell—and Live—the Best Stories Will Rule the Future. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.

The Surprising Role of Story Telling

Also see:

A Roadmap of Simple Faith

Christian Spirituality 

Looking Back 

A Place for Authoritative Prayer 

Other ways to engage online:

Author site: http://www.StephenWHiemstra.net, Publisher site: http://www.T2Pneuma.com.

Newsletter at: http://bit.ly/Hebrew_Heart

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Brueggemann’s Bible Follows the Money

Review of Walter Brueggemann's Money and PossessionsWalter Brueggemann. 2016. Money and Possessions. Interpretation series. Louisville: Westminster John Knox Press.

Review by Stephen W. Hiemstra

In August 1991 as we prepared to close on our current house, my wife, Maryam, we had two tots in diapers that she never left in the care of anyone outside the family. I arranged for power of attorney, but the lender refused to allow its use. We appeared at closing with two squirming tots and I found myself reading loan documents with an impatient wife. As I read, I discovered that the documents neglected to include my down payment ($10k) and included an interest rate 50 basis points over what we had agreed to—heaven only knows how many of the fees charged exceeded market norms. I got my down payment listed but failed to secure the agreed interest rate. Under duress, I then held my nose and signed the agreement, knowing that I sat across the table from a bunch of cheats and should have simply walked away.

The Great Recession

We eventually paid off the loan through parsimonious living and committing more time and energy to my career than I ever felt prudent. In the years to follow I worked in financial regulation and observed banking interests lobbying to tighten up federal laws making it hard to declare bankruptcy while offering increasing amounts of credit to borrowers clearly not able to repay the loans. (The lobbyists also worked to prevent regulators from collecting the data necessary to observe how financially fragile banks had become). A subprime loan basically implies that the borrower can only repay the loan under favorable employment and economic assumptions.

For those with unstable income and/or an inability to live parsimoniously, these mortgages proved deadly during the Great Recession (2007-2008 plus the slow recovery until 2017) when millions of home buyers, particularly the poor, immigrants, and minorities lost their homes and life savings. In spite of massive, systemic fraud, no one in Washington or on Wall Street ever suffered indictment.

Introduction

In his book, Money and Possessions, Walter Brueggemann writes:

“The purpose of this book is to exhibit the rich, recurring, and diverse references to money and possessions that permeate the Bible…My task has been reportage about the texts. I have found, however, that the texts themselves pressed in the direction of advocacy…When that distinctive mantra [God and mammon] on the lips of Jesus is transposed into economic interpretation, the large sweep of the text suggests a critical exposé of an economy of extraction where by concentrated power serves to extract wealth from vulnerable people in order to transfer it to the more powerful. That extraction is accomplished by the predatory if legal means of tax arrangements, credit and loan stipulations, high interest rates, and cheap labor.”(xix-xx)

Brueggemann’s highlighting of the word, mammon, in Matthew 6:24 (KJV) is instructive. Mammon is a transliteration of the Aramaic word that Jesus uses in the Greek, transliterated also in the King James translation but more commonly translated as money (ESV, NIV) or wealth (NRSV). Normally, the New Testament uses Aramaic phrases only when the word is unique in usage and without an adequate translation in Greek, which suggests that Jesus actually coined the phrase himself. In English, mammon is best translated not as money but as the “god of money,” suggesting that money has an inherently idolatrous character. Mammon is therefore an edgy sort of indictment of money matters or, as Brueggemann suggests, an advocacy not always felt to be politically palatable in mixed company.

Overview

Brueggmann employs a systematic presentation of money and possessions throughout the biblical witness (Genesis to Revelation), which is a method sometimes referred to as biblical theology, that defies summary or synthesis. In his own synthesis, he offers six theses:

  1. Money and possessions (M&P) are gifts from God…
  2. M&P are received as reward for obedience…
  3. M&P belong to God and are held in trust by human persons in community…stewardship…
  4. M&P are sources of social injustice…
  5. M&P are to be shared in a neighborly way…
  6. M&P are seductions that lead to idolatry.(1-9)

The Contradictions

He then goes on to list six contradictions that follow immediately from the above list:

  1. To view M&P as gifts from God contradicts market ideology in which there are no gifts, no free lunches…
  2. To view M&P as reward for obedience is too readily transposed into the reward system of the market…
  3. To view M&P as a trust from God contradicts the pretension of market ideology that imagines…that ‘my money is my own; I earned it and can do with it what I want.’
  4. To view M&P as a source of injustice is to contradict the easy assumptions of the market that autonomous wealth is not connected to the community…
  5. To view M&P as resources to be shared in a neighborly way contradicts the market assumption that there are no neighbors; there are only rivals, competitors, and threats…
  6. To view M&P as seductions that lead to idolatry contradicts the market view that M&P are inert and innocent neutral objects. (9-10)

Clearly, the task of engaging these theses and contradictions is formidable. For his part, Brueggemann sees this study as offering not only substantial “data of biblical teaching,” but also a critique of common thinking on money and possessions (10-11).

Assessment

Walter Brueggemann’s Money and Possessionsis a groundbreaking recitation and first interpretation of the Bible’s teaching on economic relations where tension exists between the faith community—first in Israel and later in the church—in its relationship with the wider political economy. How much tension should exist is also frequently a source of tension within the faith community itself, leaving the biblical interpreter with a difficult hermeneutical and expository task. As such, Brueggemann’s primary audience is the interpretative community interested in the role of money and possessions in defining an authorial and canonical read, which renders a reader interpretation premature.

In my own view as an economist and a pastor, I found Brueggemann’s exposition fascinating even when I might argue about particular points. Because Israel and the church have seldom been masters of their own economic fate, a theme deserving more investigation is the role that the practice of faith has played in helping believers navigate their economic environment. If Brueggemann is correct, faith and economics are inseparably linked and fundamentally inform one another.

If the results of the Marshmallow test are to be believed, for example, just teaching patience to our young people could dramatically impact their lives. Four-year olds, given a choice between having one marshmallow now or two later, who choose to wait for two are much more likely to graduate from college than their peers, a stunning result (Mischel). In today’s economy in the United States, where downward mobility has replaced upward mobility for about eighty percent of the population, offering godly guidance on money and possessions is a very practical concern.

Reference

Mischel, Walter. 2014. The Marshmallow Test: Mastering Self-Control. New York: Little, Brown, and Company.

Brueggemann’s Bible Follows the Money

Also see:

Noll Tells the History of Protestants in America Briefly

Whelchel Sees Call in Work, not just Ministry 

Books, Films, and Ministry

Other ways to engage online:

Author site: http://www.StephenWHiemstra.net, Publisher site: http://www.T2Pneuma.com.

Newsletter at: http://bit.ly/Hebrew_Heart

 

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Monday Monologues: A Hebrew Heart, July 9, 2018 (podcast)

Stephen W. Hiemstra, www.StephenWHiemstra.net
Stephen W. Hiemstra, 2017

By Stephen W. Hiemstra

In today’s podcast, I pray for the local church and talk about a Hebrew Heart.

To listen, click on the link below.

After listening, please click here to take a brief listener survey (10 questions).

Monday Monologues: A Hebrew Heart, July 9, 2018 (podcast)

Also see:

Monday Monologue On March 26, 2018 

Other ways to engage online:

Author site: http://www.StephenWHiemstra.net, Publisher site: http://www.T2Pneuma.com.

Newsletter at: http://bit.ly/Hebrew_Heart

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Prayer for the Local Church

Ceramic churchBy Stephen W. Hiemstra

Almighty and Loving Father,

We praise you for the pouring out of your Holy Spirit to establish the church on the day of Pentecost.

To you and you alone be the glory, now and always.

We confess that as your church, we are broken and sinful, yet in Christ we are also forgiven.

For your forgiveness, we are truly grateful. We are also thankful for the many blessings that you have poured out on us as a church. For in Christ, we are able to undertake ministry that would be impossible for us as individuals.

We ask now, Lord, for your strength to carry on with the mission that you have given us, even as many changes are taking place. As Jesus said: “As the Father has sent me, even so I am sending you.” (John 20:21 ESV)

In the power of your Holy Spirit, protect us from being diverted to other missions and especially from the spirit of the day who harries us relentlessly.

In Jesus’ precious name, Amen.

Prayer for the Local Church

Also see:

Giving Thanks 

A Place for Authoritative Prayer 

Other ways to engage online:

Author site: http://www.StephenWHiemstra.net, Publisher site: http://www.T2Pneuma.com.

Newsletter at: http://bit.ly/Hebrew_Heart

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