I am astonished that you are so quickly deserting him who called you in the grace of Christ and are turning to a different gospel (Galatians 1:6 ESV).
What exactly is the grace of Christ and what is the Gospel? What is this different gospel that Paul writes about? Over the coming six weeks, I hope to explore what Paul has to say about these and related topics. My purpose today is to provide some background for this study.
Authorship, Location, and Date. No one disputes that the Apostle Paul wrote this letter (epistle) to the churches in Galatians. However, since the nineteenth century, there has been a controversy among scholars as the location of these churches because the region of Galatia changed over time and included different ethnic communities. In general, if Galatia refers to the southern part of Galatia, then the letter corresponds to Paul’s first missionary visit to the region (AD 49); if it corresponds to the northern part, then it corresponds to the second missionary visit (AD 53-57).
Other controversies revolve around lining up Paul’s trips to Jerusalem mentioned in Galatians 1:18 and 2:1 with corresponding verses in the Book of Acts. Further disagreements arise in lining up the different passages where the region of Galatia is mentioned in the New Testament (NT). These passages are: Acts 16:6, 18:23, 1 Corinthians 16:1, Galatians 1:2, 3:1, 2 Timothy 4:10, and 1 Peter 1:1. The details of these arguments are beyond the scope of this review .
Themes. The scholarly debate over Galatians is spirited because the letter compactly states the core themes in Paul’s theology. Topics addressed include the relationship between law and gospel and between Jew and gentile. Answers to these questions help define the nature of God’s grace, the role of our faith, and, in effect, the scope of Christian freedom. The brevity of Paul’s letter forces scholars to interpret statements made in Galatians in terms of Paul’s other letters and the scope of other authors in the NT.
Hermaneutics. Hermes was the messenger god; hermeneutics is according the study of interpretation. While there are many important schools of interpretation, three dominant interpretive views stand out: author, scriptural, and reader. The author view asks: what did the author mean to say? The scriptural view asks: when something is unclear, is there a clear statement elsewhere in scripture? The reader view asks: what does it mean to me? John Calvin asked each of these questions and required also that interpretations consult the original languages of scripture—for example, Galatians was written in Greek.
Commentaries. It is helpful to use a wide variety of resources in Bible study even if time and energy are limited. I plan to use these commentaries:
Bruce, FF. 1982. The Epistle to the Galatians: A Commentary on the Greek Text. NIGTC. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans.
Hansen, G.W.. 1993. “Letter to the Galatians” pages 323-334 of Dictionary of Paul and His Letter. Compendium of Contemporary Biblical Scholarship. Edited by Gerald F. Hawthorn, Ralph P. Martin, and Daniel G. Reid. Downers Grove: InterVarsity Press.
Keller, Timothy. 2013. Galatians for You. USA: TheGoodBook.
McKnight, Scot. 1995. The NIV Application Commentary: Galatians. Grand Rapids: Zondervan.
Of these, the Keller commentary is the most accessible to a lay reader.
I also make frequent reference to the Nestle-Aland Greek NT (Novum Testamentum Graece, 2012, Munich: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft) which includes an excellent concordance.
If you are interested, check out: (Hansen 1993, 327-328).