VanDuivendyk: Working with Instead of Against Grief

Gift_of_Grief_review_07242014Tim P. VanDuivendyk [1]. 2006. The Unwanted Gift of Grief:  A Ministry Approach.  New York:  Haworth Press Inc.

Review by Stephen W. Hiemstra

Do you give grieving people permission to grieve?  Or do you try to sweep grief under the rug?

In his book, The Unwanted Gift of Grief, chaplain Tim P. VanDuivendyk advises us to walk with people in their grief and help them complete the process of grief work (12).  He observes:

So many well-meaning friends and loved ones may try to cheer us up rather than just be with us in our sadness. Rather than help us grieve through and talk out our pain, they may attempt to talk us out of pain.  Rather than be sojourners with us in the wilderness, they may attempt to find us a shortcut…This book is not designed to take you out of your pain but to invite you into and through your pain to transformation and new life (3).

In this context, a sojourner is:  one who is willing to support, listen, and compassionately walk with another through their wilderness of grief (5).  VanDuivendyk further observes:

[This] wilderness is not just a physical place but also a spiritual and emotional place.  In the wilderness of grief we may not know which direction to take.  Feelings of fear may paralyze us.  We may not be able to see through the thick forest to tomorrow (9).

VanDuivendyk characterizes grief almost like a scab on a wound.  He writes:

Grief fills up the vacuum of empty space left by our deceased loved one until we can adjust to and accept the reality that the person is no longer with us (12).

Grief is a gift because it helps us transform towards differentiating ourselves from our loved one (16).  Because they have passed, we must learn to live in their absence (the process of differentiation).  A scab protects us while the skin underneath grows to close up the wound.

VanDuivendyk sees 3 passageways through grief, depending on whether we prefer thinking, feeling, or acting (24-26).  Think people follow a cognitive pathway; feel people track emotions but may not be able to reason through what is going on; act people stay busy doing tasks during grief. Each pathway offers strengths and weaknesses. An act person, for example, may develop into a workaholic in response to grief (29) while a think person may worry obsessively and a feel person may slip into depression (28-29). VanDuivendyk suggests that we should learn to employ and work with each approach as a way to balance out (27).

VanDuivendyk’s The Unwanted Gift of Grief is written in 17 chapters preceded by a forward, acknowledgments, and an introduction and followed by notes, suggested readings, and an index.  These chapters are:

  1. Grief as Gratitude, Grief as a Gift;
  2. Everyone Grieves Differently;
  3. Factors that affect the Wilderness of Grief;
  4. Unbelievable Darkness;
  5. Frustration and Anger Amid “Why?”
  6. Praying for a Miracle;
  7. Wrestling with Sadness and Depression;
  8. Healing: Experiencing the Light Again;
  9. And Yet…We Never Forget!
  10. Being a Sojourner;
  11. Sojourning with Those in Unbelievable Darkness;
  12. Sojourning with Those Frustrated and Angry Amid “Why?”
  13. Sojourning with Those Praying for a Miracle;
  14. Sojourning with Those Wrestling with Sadness and Depression;
  15. Sojourning with Those in Healing and Light;
  16. Marriage : Tough Enough without Grief;
  17. Ways of Making it Through the Wilderness of Grief (vii-ix).

Clearly, VanDuivendyk writes using a topical approach.

In my own work as a chaplain intern, I found that the majority of patients that I visited with suffered from grief at some level.  For some it was active and obvious; for others it was repressed and a source of physical complication.  Helping people become more aware of their grief was one of the ways to facilitate their journey with it.

More than anything, VanDuivendyk convinced me of the need to give people permission to grieve, particularly at funerals.  That one insight was worth the ticket of admission.  After all, ours is a religion that began in a graveyard, not a church. We grieve and can give permission to grieve because with the resurrection of Jesus Christ we know the graveyard is not the end of the story.  The end of the story is not sadness, but joy—in Christ.



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A Christian Guide to Spirituality Now Available!

1_Hagia_Sophia_book_cover_front_web_6x9_07282014A Christian Guide to Spirituality is now available (in the U.S.) on  It is also available on CreateSpace’s eStore [1].

I would encourage you to visit the T2Pneuma Publishers LLC website (Link) where Leader and Media Guides are available.  You can also navigate there by selecting the Publisher menu above.

Below is a brief introduction.


A Christian Guide to Spirituality: Foundations for Disciples

Authored by Stephen W. Hiemstra, Foreword by Neal D. Presa, Edited by Reid Satterfield

List Price: $12.95

T2Pneuma Publishers LLC

ISBN-13: 978-0615971353 (Custom)
ISBN-10: 0615971350
BISAC: Religion / Spirituality

6″ x 9″ (15.24 x 22.86 cm)
Black & White on White paper
230 pages

Spirituality is lived belief. When we pray, worship, or reach out to our neighbors, we live out our beliefs. Our beliefs structure our spirituality like skin stretched over the bones of our bodies.

These beliefs start with faith in God the Father through Jesus Christ as revealed through the Holy Spirit in scripture, in the church, and in daily life. Our Trinitarian theology orders our beliefs. Without a coherent theology, we lose our identity in space and time having no map or compass to guide us on our way. In the end, we focus on ourselves, not God.

Christian spirituality starts with God, not with us.

A Christian Guide to Spirituality takes the form of 50 daily devotions. Each topic is treated with a scriptural reference, reflection, prayer, and questions for discussion. Occasionally, references are provided for further study. The first four chapters (Introduction, Ten Commandments, Lord’s Prayer, and Apostle’s Creed) cover 40 days making them suitable as a Lenten study. Ten additional days focus on the spiritual disciplines and a short conclusion. Fifty days of study allow an Easter study running through Pentecost.

Reading A Christian Guide to Spirituality will help readers understand Christian spirituality better and nurture their faith. There is no such thing as quality time with the Lord; there is only time. The living God speaks to us in many ways, but especially through scripture. These three sources cited (Ten Commandments, Lord’s Prayer, and Apostle’s Creed) are commonly called the “rule of faith” (regula fidei) and were utilized for nearly two millennia as a means to apprentice the faith. These sources are the heart of the confessions of most Christian faith communities and denominations.

Author Stephen W. Hiemstra (MDiv, PhD) is a slave of Christ, husband, father, aspiring pastor, economist, and writer. He lives with his wife, Maryam, of thirty years in Centreville, VA and they have three grown children. The forward is written by Neal D. Presa, past moderator of the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church (USA).

This book might be classified appropriately in spirituality, Christian living, devotion, faith, religion, and theology.


What people are saying…

You have my blessing. It’s book that needed to be written. It will do a lot of good.
– Peter John Kreeft, Boston College

Stephen provides a helpful, accessible guide using the classic catechetical structure of the Ten Commandments, the Lord’s Prayer, and the Apostles’ Creed.
– David A. Currie, Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary

This is a book for those who want to understand how best to have a living faith and an ever deepening devotional and experiential knowledge of God.
– Stephen Macchia, Pierce Center for Disciple-Building


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2 Corinthians 4: Jars of Clay

Art by Stephen W. Hiemstra
Art by Stephen W. Hiemstra

“Do not lay up for yourselves treasures on earth, where moth and rust destroy and where thieves break in and steal, but lay up for yourselves treasures in heaven, where neither moth nor rust destroys and where thieves do not break in and steal. For where your treasure is, there your heart will be also. (Matthew 6:19-21 ESV)

By Stephen W. Hiemstra

Hudson Taylor, the founder of China Inland Mission, wrote in his autobiography of a Buddhist who came to Christ in 1857 in Ningpo.  A few nights after his conversion, he asked how long the British had known about Jesus Christ.  Being told that they had known for hundreds of years, he exclaimed:  My father sought after the truth for more than 20 years, and died without finding it. Oh, why did you not come sooner? [1] The Psalmist writes:

For you have delivered my soul from death, my eyes from tears, my feet from stumbling; I will walk before the LORD in the land of the living. (Psalm 116:8-9 ESV)

The priceless treasure that comes to us in jars of clay, unfortunately, does not come to everyone.

As a student of marketing, I bear witness to the importance of packaging—especially for perishable products.  Walking through a typical supermarket today, we can see thousands of delicious and beautiful food products which 100 years ago were unknown to most of humanity.  Why?  Because the cost of packaging, transportation, and refrigeration was simply too high.  Today, high quality packaging and refrigeration are taken for granted.  We do not even think about such things.  Instead, we just buy whatever looks good and assume that it will always be available for a modest cost.

When it comes to spiritual matters, however, looks can be deceiving.  The Apostle Paul writes:

And even if our gospel is veiled, it is veiled to those who are perishing.  In their case the god of this world has blinded the minds of the unbelievers, to keep them from seeing the light of the gospel of the glory of Christ, who is the image of God (vv 3-4).

The Gospel is veiled in the story of Jesus Christ who was executed on a cross for sedition and whose story is best told by followers who understand the meaning of suffering.  Of the suffering, Paul writes:

We are afflicted in every way, but not crushed; perplexed, but not driven to despair; persecuted, but not forsaken; struck down, but not destroyed; always carrying in the body the death of Jesus, so that the life of Jesus may also be manifested in our bodies. (vv 8-10)

You see, the packaging is a bit worn and is not at all attractive—clay pots that hide the value of what is found inside.  Again, Paul writes:  In their case the god of this world has blinded the minds of the unbelievers, to keep them from seeing the light of the gospel of the glory of Christ, who is the image of God (v 4).

Looks can be deceiving…

[1] J. Hudson Taylor.  1987.  Hudson Taylor (Autobiography).  Bloomington, MN: Bethany House Publishers. Pages 126-127. @bethany_house,

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2 Corintios 4: Vasijas de Barro

Art by Stephen W. Hiemstra
Art by Stephen W. Hiemstra

No acumulen para sí tesoros en la tierra, donde la polilla y el óxido destruyen, y donde los ladrones se meten a robar.  Más bien, acumulen para sí tesoros en el cielo, donde ni la polilla ni el óxido carcomen, ni los ladrones se meten a robar. Porque donde esté tu tesoro, allí estará también tu corazón. (Mateo 6:19-21 NVI)

Por Stephen W. Hiemstra

Hudson Taylor, el fundador de la China, Inland Mission, escribió en su autobiografía [1] de un budista que vino a Cristo en 1857 en Ningpo. Unas noches después de su conversión, le preguntó cuánto tiempo los británicos habían conocido acerca de Jesucristo. Ser dijeron que habían conocido por cientos de años, exclamó: Mi padre buscado la verdad por más de 20 años, y murió sin encontrarlo. Oh, ¿por qué no has venido antes? El salmista escribe:

Tú me has librado de la muerte, has enjugado mis lágrimas, no me has dejado tropezar. Por eso andaré siempre delante del SEÑOR en esta tierra de los vivientes. (Salmo 116:8-9 NVI)

El tesoro de valor incalculable que nos viene en vasos de barro, por desgracia, no viene a todo el mundo.

Como estudiante de marketing, yo doy testimonio acerca de la importancia de los envases, especialmente para los productos perecederos. Caminando a través de un supermercado típico hoy en día, podemos ver miles de productos deliciosos y hermosos de alimentos que hace 100 años eran desconocidos para la mayoría de la humanidad. ¿Por qué? Debido a que el costo del transporte y la refrigeración era simplemente demasiado alto. Hoy en día, el envasado de alta calidad y de refrigeración se dan por sentados. Ni siquiera pensar en esas cosas. En lugar de ello, sólo compramos lo ve bien y suponemos que siempre estará disponible por un costo modesto.

Sin embargo, cuando se trata de asuntos espirituales, las apariencias engañan. El apóstol Pablo escribe:

Pero si nuestro evangelio está encubierto, lo está para los que se pierden. El dios de este mundo ha cegado la mente de estos incrédulos, para que no vean la luz del glorioso evangelio de Cristo, el cual es la imagen de Dios (vv 3-4).

El Evangelio está velado en la historia de Jesucristo, que fue ejecutado en una cruz por sedición y cuya historia es mejor contada por los seguidores que entienden el significado del sufrimiento. De los que sufren, Pablo escribe:

Nos vemos atribulados en todo, pero no abatidos; perplejos, pero no desesperados; perseguidos, pero no abandonados; derribados, pero no destruidos. Dondequiera que vamos, siempre llevamos en nuestro cuerpo la muerte de Jesús, para que también su vida se manifieste en nuestro cuerpo (vv 8-10).

Usted ve, el envase es un poco desgastado y no es del todo atractiva ollas de arcilla que ocultan el valor de lo que se encuentra dentro. Una vez más, Pablo escribe: El dios de este mundo ha cegado la mente de estos incrédulos, para que no vean la luz del glorioso evangelio de Cristo, el cual es la imagen de Dios (v 4).

Las apariencias engañan …

[1] J. Hudson Taylor.  1987.  Hudson Taylor (Autobiography).  Bloomington, MN: Bethany House Publishers. Pages 126-127. @bethany_house,

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Parks: Mentoring to Make a Difference

Big_review_07212014Sharon Daloz Parks. 2000. Big Questions, Worthy Dreams: Mentoring Young Adults in Their Search for Meaning, Purpose, and Faith.  New York:  John Wiley & Sons.

Review by Stephen W. Hiemstra

As the father of three 20-somethings, I have frequently been torn between repressed anger, guilt, and a feeling of total inadequacy as a parent. Thanks to the influence of Sharon D. Parks, Big Questions; Worthy Dreams, I have found mentoring to be a reasonable response to my parenting situation.

Parks makes two points that clarify the mentoring task at hand.

The first point is her definition of a young adult. She asks: When does one cross the threshold into adulthood? The response of North American culture is ambiguous (4). Finding work and a spouse are still important, but the time required to become educated and increasing problem of downward mobility make it harder to become settled. The ambiguity and instability of the young adult situation in society are reflected in the greater challenge facing mentors, including parents.

The second point is reflected in her title. Young adulthood is a life-stage where the formation of meaning is particularly important. Parks writes: in the years from seventeen to thirty a distinctive mode of meaning-making can emerge, one that has certain adult characteristics but understandably lacks others (6).

The importance of challenging the young adult to take new faith steps is captured in her prescription–develop and expand a worthy, young adult dream. Parks writes: If the young adult Dream is to have mature power and serve the full potential of self and world, then it must be critically reexamined from time to time throughout adulthood (219). The role of mentors is to help the young adult craft, refine, and be true to this dream.

Parks writes Big Questions, Worthy Dreams in 10 chapters:

  1. Young Adulthood in a Changing World:  Promise and Vulnerability;
  2. Meaning and Faith;
  3. Becoming at Home in the Universe;
  4. It Matters How We Think;
  5. It All Depends…;
  6. …On Belonging;
  7.  Imagination:  The Power of Adult Faith;
  8. The Gifts of a Mentoring Environoment;
  9. Mentoring Communities; and
  10. Culture as a Mentor (vii).

These chapters are bracketed by a preface and various references at the end.  At the time of publication, Parks was an associate director at the Whidbey Institute near Seattle, WA [1].  She is now involved with an effort called the Leadership for the New Commons [2].  Formerly, she was with Harvard Divinity School and other noteworthy institutions.

The scope and depth of Park’s scholarship suggests that this book targets graduate students and professionals focused on counseling young adults. Most readers looking for advice on parenting are likely to find this book a challenging read. The gap between these two ready audiences suggests an opportunity for a follow up text focused on aid and comfort for the typical parents of young adults.



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Dyck: Stop Mistaking a Tiger for a Pussy-cat

Tiger_review_07182014Drew Nathan Dyck [1]. 2014. Yawning at Tigers: You Can’t Tame God, So Stop Trying. Nashville: Thomas Nelson.

Review by Stephen W. Hiemstra

Economists, who work in the world on worldly matters, often chide at the anti-intellectual attitude that often limits objective problem solving.  This is not a new problem.  Writing in 1936 in the middle of the Great Depression, John Maynard Keynes famously wrote:   Practical men, who believe themselves to be quite exempt from any intellectual, are usually the slaves of some defunct economist [2].  This same anti-intellectualism, of course, also shows up in the church as an overt bias against ideas that sound vaguely like theology.

In his book, Yawning at Tigers, Drew Nathan Dyck observes:

…we need to be reminded of God’s love … [but] Rarely do we hear about God’ mystery and majesty, let alone whisper a word about his wrath (3).

Furthermore, he observes:

The truth is that God is radically different from us, in degree and kind.  He is ontologically dissimilar, wholly other, dangerous, alien, holy, and wild (5).

The problem here is inherently theological.  We are comfortable with God’s love, an attribute of an immanent God, but profoundly uncomfortable with a Holy God, an attribute of a transcendent God. Dyck’s point is that an infatuation with God’s love has led to neglect of His other attributes.

As Christians, we confess that God is both immanent (near us as in the Holy Spirit and like us as in Jesus Christ) and transcendent (above us and removed from us as in God the Father).  Dyck (99) cites the Prophet Jeremiah:

Am I a God at hand, declares the LORD, and not a God far away?  Can a man hide himself in secret places so that I cannot see him? declares the LORD. Do I not fill heaven and earth? declares the LORD. (Jeremiah 23:23-24 ESV)

The problem that faces the church is that in refusing to debate theology, perhaps due to an obsession with our own emotions, we may inadvertently adopt theologies that we would not choose, if we spent more time thinking about it.

In Dyck’s case, he worries that a domesticated God (totally immanent) lacks the power required to deal with life’s challenges.  Power is an attribute of transcendence.  If God is no longer almighty (holy, sovereign), then He is also no longer interesting—kids need not attend church.  He’s safe but irrelevant.  Dyck (6) observes:  We ask God to keep us safe, not realizing that it is from him we most need protecting [3].

A teddy bear god is of no use in a world populated with tigers—clearly, much more could be said.

Yawning at Tigers covers a lot of ground in 12 chapters:

  1. Divine Invasion;
  2. Beyond the Shallows;
  3. The God Worth Worshipping;
  4. A Vision of Holiness;
  5. Dangerous Living;
  6. God Incognito;
  7. Loving a Lion;
  8. Tenacity and Tenderness;
  9. Intimate Beginnings;
  10. Face-to-Face:
  11. Jesus in the Shadows; and
  12. The Fragrance of Eternity (viii).

These chapters are bracketed by an introduction (The Greatest Adventure) and a follow up discussion guide.  Dyck is well read and has traveled widely during his career.  This makes his narrative writing style both interesting and accessible; a masters in theology makes his writing engaging. He is currently the managing editor of the Leadership Journal [4] and author of Generation Ex—Christians:  Why Young Adults are Leaving the Faith…and How to Bring them Back [5].


[2] A fuller reference is:  “… the ideas of economists and political philosophers, both when they are right and when they are wrong, are more powerful than is commonly understood. Indeed the world is ruled by little else. Practical men, who believe themselves to be quite exempt from any intellectual influence, are usually the slaves of some defunct economist. Madmen in authority, who hear voices in the air, are distilling their frenzy from some academic scribbler of a few years back …”John Maynard Keynes. 1936. The General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money. United Kingdom: Palgrave Macmillan. (383–84).

[3] Or as the Bible says:  It is a fearful thing to fall into the hands of the living God. (Hebrews 10:31 ESV)

[4] The Leadership Journal is associated with Christianity Today (




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2 Corinthians 3: Lifting the Veil

Art by Stephen W. Hiemstra
Art by Stephen W. Hiemstra

And I will give them one heart, and a new spirit I will put within them. I will remove the heart of stone from their flesh and give them a heart of flesh, that they may walk in my statutes and keep my rules and obey them. And they shall be my people, and I will be their God. (Ezekiel 11:19-20 ESV)

By Stephen W. Hiemstra

Did you know that you are Christ’s letter of recommendation?

As I worked to publish my book, A Christian Guide to Spirituality, this year, one of the hardest things for me to do is ask for friends and colleagues to review my book and for well-known authors to read the book and write blurbs. I am too proud; I want to believe that I am independent and self-sufficient.  Asking for recommendations requires that I swallow my pride and admit that I need someone else’s help.  This is usually something painful for me to do.

The Apostle Paul walks this path in chapter 2 of his second letter to the church at Corinth.  Paul poses a rhetorical question, writing:  Are we beginning to commend ourselves again? Or do we need, as some do, letters of recommendation to you, or from you? (v 1)  His response is surprising: You yourselves are our letter of recommendation, written on our hearts, to be known and read by all. (v 2)  In giving the law to Moses, God wrote on tablets of stone; in presenting the Gospel through Jesus Christ through the Holy Spirit, God writes on our hearts (v 3).  We are Christ’s letter of recommendation to the world.

Paul then uses a word that sounds strange to us:  glory.  Glory is a translation from the Greek word, doxa (δόξῃ, BDAG 2077), which means: the condition of being bright or shining, brightness, splendor, radiance. Paul is making reference to experience of Moses when he brought the Ten Commandments down from my Sinai to the people of Israel—

When Moses came down from Mount Sinai, with the two tablets of the testimony in his hand as he came down from the mountain, Moses did not know that the skin of his face shone because he had been talking with God…And when Moses had finished speaking with them, he put a veil over his face. (Exodus 34:29 and 33 ESV)

The glory of God was so profound that Moses himself began to glow!

Paul then begins a comparison between the Law of Moses and the grace of Jesus Christ.  He writes:  For if there was glory in the ministry of condemnation, the ministry of righteousness must far exceed it in glory. (v 9)  The law kills (the ministry of condemnation) while grace gives life (the ministry of righteousness; v 6).  In other words, Paul is saying that if you think that Moses glowed, you will glow even more in the grace of Jesus Christ through the work of the Holy Spirit.  However, Moses’ veil not only covered his face, it veiled the hearts of the people hearing the law (v 15) and prevented them from experiencing God’s grace.  In Jesus Christ, this veil was lifted (v 16).

This is the process of becoming a letter of recommendation.

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2 Corintios 3: Levantamiento del Velo

Art by Stephen W. Hiemstra
Art by Stephen W. Hiemstra

Yo les daré un corazón íntegro, y pondré en ellos un espíritu renovado. Les arrancaré el corazón de piedra que ahora tienen, y pondré en ellos un corazón de carne, para que cumplan mis decretos y pongan en práctica mis leyes. Entonces ellos serán mi pueblo, y yo seré su Dios. (Ezequiel 11:19-20 NVI)

By Stephen W. Hiemstra

¿Sabía usted que usted es una carta de recomendación de Cristo?

Mientras trabajaba para publicar mi libro, Una Guía cristiana a la Espiritualidad, este año, una de las cosas más difíciles para mí hacer es pedir amigos y colegas para revisar mi libro y por autores conocidos a leer el libro y escribir notas publicitarias. Estoy demasiado orgulloso; Quiero creer que soy independiente y autosuficiente. Pedir recomendaciones requiere que me trago mi orgullo y admitir que necesito la ayuda de alguien más. Esto suele ser algo doloroso para mí hacerlo.

El Apóstol Pablo camina este camino en el capítulo 2 de la segunda carta a la iglesia de Corinto. Pablo hace una pregunta retórica, la escritura: ¿Acaso comenzamos otra vez a recomendarnos a nosotros mismos? ¿O acaso tenemos que presentarles o pedirles a ustedes cartas de recomendación, como hacen algunos?  (v 1) Su respuesta es sorprendente: Ustedes mismos son nuestra carta, escrita en nuestro corazón, conocida y leída por todos. (v 2) Al dar la ley a Moisés, Dios escribió en tablas de piedra; en la presentación del evangelio a través de Jesucristo a través del Espíritu Santo, Dios escribe en la carne de nuestros corazones (v 3). Estamos carta de Cristo de la recomendación para el mundo.

Pablo entonces utiliza una palabra que suena extraño para nosotros: la gloria. Gloria es una traducción de la palabra griega, doxa (δόξῃ, BDAG 2077), lo que significa: la condición de ser brillante, brillo, esplendor, luminosidad. Pablo hace referencia a la experiencia de Moisés cuando trajo los Diez Mandamientos desde Monte Sinaí al pueblo de Israel—

Cuando Moisés descendió del monte Sinaí, traía en sus manos las dos tablas de la ley. Pero no sabía que, por haberle hablado el SEÑOR, de su rostro salía un haz de luz…En cuanto Moisés terminó de hablar con ellos, se cubrió el rostro con un velo. (Éxodo 34:29 y 33 NVI)

La gloria de Dios era tan profunda que Moisés comenzó a brillar!

Pablo entonces comienza una comparación entre la Ley de Moisés y la gracia de Jesucristo. Él escribe: Si es glorioso el ministerio que trae condenación, ¡cuánto más glorioso será el ministerio que trae la justicia! (v 9) La ley mata (el ministerio de condenación), mientras que la gracia da la vida (el ministerio de la justicia, v 6). En otras palabras, Pablo está diciendo que si usted piensa que Moisés resplandecía, usted brillará aún más en la gracia de Jesucristo a través de la obra del Espíritu Santo. Sin embargo, el velo de Moisés no sólo se cubrió el rostro, velado los corazones de la gente no oír la ley (v 15) y les impide experimentar la gracia de Dios. En Jesucristo, este velo fue levantado (v 16).

Este es el proceso de llegar a ser una carta de recomendación.

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