Introduction to Galatians

GalatiansBy Stephen W. Hiemstra

I am astonished that you are so quickly deserting him who called you in the grace of Christ and are turning to a different gospel (Galatians 1:6 ESV).

What exactly is the grace of Christ and what is the Gospel?  What is this different gospel that Paul writes about?  Over the coming six weeks, I hope to explore what Paul has to say about these and related topics in his letter to the Galatians.  My purpose today is to provide some background for this study.

Authorship, Location, and Date

No one disputes that the Apostle Paul wrote this letter (epistle) to the churches in Galatians.  However, since the nineteenth century, there has been a controversy among scholars as the location of these churches because the region of Galatia changed over time and included different ethnic communities.  In general, if Galatia refers to the southern part of Galatia, then the letter corresponds to Paul’s first missionary visit to the region (AD 49); if it corresponds to the northern part, then it corresponds to the second missionary visit (AD 53-57).

Other controversies revolve around lining up Paul’s trips to Jerusalem mentioned in Galatians 1:18 and 2:1 with corresponding verses in the Book of Acts.  Further disagreements arise in lining up the different passages where the region of Galatia is mentioned in the New Testament (NT).  These passages are:  Acts 16:6, 18:23, 1 Corinthians 16:1, Galatians 1:2, 3:1, 2 Timothy 4:10, and 1 Peter 1:1.  The details of these arguments are beyond the scope of this review [1].

Themes

The scholarly debate over Galatians is spirited because the letter compactly states the core themes in Paul’s theology.  Topics addressed include the relationship between law and gospel and between Jew and gentile.  Answers to these questions help define the nature of God’s grace, the role of our faith, and, in effect, the scope of Christian freedom.  The brevity of Paul’s letter forces scholars to interpret statements made in Galatians in terms of Paul’s other letters and the scope of other authors in the NT.

Hermaneutics

Hermes was the messenger god; hermeneutics is according the study of interpretation.  While there are many important schools of interpretation, three dominant interpretive views stand out: author, scriptural, and reader.  The author view asks:  what did the author mean to say?  The scriptural view asks:  when something is unclear, is there a clear statement elsewhere in scripture?  The reader view asks:  what does it mean to me?  John Calvin asked each of these questions and required also that interpretations consult the original languages of scripture—for example, Galatians was written in Greek.

Commentaries

It is helpful to use a wide variety of resources in Bible study even if time and energy are limited.  I plan to use these commentaries:

Bruce, FF. 1982.  The Epistle to the Galatians:  A Commentary on the Greek Text.  NIGTC.  Grand Rapids:  Eerdmans.

Hansen, G.W.. 1993. “Letter to the Galatians” pages 323-334 of Dictionary of Paul and His Letter. Compendium of Contemporary Biblical Scholarship.  Edited by Gerald F. Hawthorn, Ralph P. Martin, and Daniel G. Reid. Downers Grove:  InterVarsity Press.

Keller, Timothy.  2013.  Galatians for You.  USA:  TheGoodBook.

McKnight, Scot. 1995.  The NIV Application Commentary:  Galatians.  Grand Rapids:  Zondervan.

Of these, the Keller commentary is the most accessible to a lay reader.

I also make frequent reference to the Nestle-Aland Greek NT (Novum Testamentum Graece, 2012, Munich:  Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft) which includes an excellent concordance.

Footnotes


[1]If you are interested, check out:  (Hansen 1993, 327-328).

Introduction to Galatians

Also see:

Galatians 1: Christ Alone 

Christian Spirituality 

Looking Back 

Other ways to engage online:

Author site: http://www.StephenWHiemstra.net, Publisher site: http://www.T2Pneuma.com.

Newsletter at: http://bit.ly/2zRkNMJ

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Introducción A Gálatas

Galatians_12312013Por Stephen W. Hiemstra

Me asombra que tan pronto estén dejando ustedes a quien los llamó por la gracia de Cristo, para pasarse a otro evangelio (Galatas 1:6 NVI).

¿Qué es exactamente la gracia de Cristo y lo que es el Evangelio? ¿Qué es este evangelio que Pablo escribe acerca de? En las próximas seis semanas, los espero para explorar lo que Pablo tiene que decir acerca de estos y otros temas relacionados. Mi propósito hoy es proporcionar algunos antecedentes para este revisión.

Autoría, Lugar y Fecha. Nadie pone en duda que el apóstol Pablo escribió esta carta (epístola) a las iglesias de Gálatas. Sin embargo, desde el siglo XIX, ha habido una controversia entre los estudiosos como la ubicación de estas iglesias, porque la región de Galacia cambió con el tiempo e incluyó diferentes comunidades étnicas. En general, si Galacia se refiere a la parte sur de Galacia, luego la letra correspondiente a la primera visita de un misionero de Pablo a la región (AD 49); si corresponde a la parte norte, entonces corresponde a la segunda visita de un misionero (AD 53-57).

Otras controversias giran en torno a alinear los viajes de Pablo a Jerusalén mencionados en Gálatas 1:18 y 2:1 con correspondientes versículos en el libro de los Hechos. Otros desacuerdos surgen a alinear los diferentes pasajes donde se menciona la región de Galacia en el Nuevo Testamento (NT). Estos pasajes son los siguientes: Hechos 16:6, 18:23, 1 Corintios 16:1, Gálatas 1:2, 3:1, 2 Timoteo 4:10, y 1 Pedro 1:1. Los detalles de estos argumentos están más allá del alcance de este estudio [1].

Temas. El debate académico sobre Gálatas es espíritu, porque la carta se afirma de forma compacta los temas centrales en la teología de Pablo. Los temas tratados incluyen la relación entre ley y evangelio, y entre Judio y gentiles. Las respuestas a estas preguntas ayudan a definir la naturaleza de la gracia de Dios, el papel de la fe, y, en efecto, el alcance de la libertad cristiana. La brevedad de la carta de Pablo obliga a los estudiosos para interpretar las declaraciones hechas en Gálatas, en términos de otras cartas de Pablo y el alcance de otros autores en el NT.

Hermenéutica. Hermes era el dios mensajero, la hermenéutica es de acuerdo al estudio de la interpretación.  Si bien hay muchas escuelas importantes de interpretación, tres puntos de vista dominantes interpretativos destacan: autor, las Escrituras, y el lector. La vista autor se pregunta: ¿qué quiso decir el autor que decir? El punto de vista de las Escrituras pregunta: cuando algo no está claro, es que hay una clara declaración en otro lugar en la Escritura? La vista lector pregunta: ¿qué significa para mí?  Juan Calvino pidió a cada una de estas preguntas y requiere también que las interpretaciones consultan los idiomas originales de las Escrituras, por ejemplo, Gálatas fue escrito en griego.

Comentarios. Es útil usar una amplia variedad de recursos en el estudio de la Biblia, incluso si el tiempo y la energía son limitadas. Espero utilizar estos comentarios:

Bruce, FF. 1982. The Epistle to the Galatians: A Commentary on the Greek Text. NIGTC. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans.

Hansen, G.W. 1993. “Letter to the Galatians” pages 323-334 of Dictionary of Paul and His Letter. Compendium of Contemporary Biblical Scholarship. Edited by Gerald F. Hawthorn, Ralph P. Martin, and Daniel G. Reid. Downers Grove: InterVarsity Press.

Keller, Timothy. 2013. Galatians for You. USA: TheGoodBook.

McKnight, Scot. 1995. The NIV Application Commentary: Galatians. Grand Rapids: Zondervan.

De éstos, el comentario Keller es el más accesible. También hago referencia frecuente a la Nestle- Aland Nuevo Testamento Griego (Novum Testamentum Graece, 2012, Munich: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft) que incluye una excelente concordancia.

1/ Si usted está interesado, visite la dirección:  (Hansen 1993, 327-328).

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Top 10 Posts in 2013

Art by Sharron Beg (www.threadpaintersart.blogspot.com)
Art by Sharron Beg (www.threadpaintersart.blogspot.com)

Top Ten Posts in 2013 (Title/Link/Views)

1. RPC Sharpens Shorts; Gets Buy / http://bit.ly/1fMPKlq / 33

2. Exercise Nuts Live Longer; Live Better / http://bit.ly/1aiGfFp / 23

3. JOHN 12: Jesus Messiah / http://bit.ly/16VBkdm / 13

4. JOHN 14: Jesus’ Farewell Consolation / http://bit.ly/1iCJSuR / 13

5. Graham Shares Gospel; Speaks about Judgment / http://bit.ly/1gj4DPh / 12

6. JOHN 18: The Arrest and Trials of Jesus / http://bit.ly/1ll9M7N / 11

7. Schaefer Works Twitter; Brings Business Sense / http://bit.ly/19ROE26 / 10

8. JOHN 13: Foot Washing / http://bit.ly/1dBNo8p / 10

9. Prayer Day 1, A Christian Guide to Spirituality / http://bit.ly/1ikQe6h / 10

10. Barnes Interprets Heidelberg; Offers Postmodern Reading / http://bit.ly/17zixKL / 10

Happy New Year!

Thank you for your support of this ministry.

Stephen

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Ebenezers, Benchmarks, and Transitions in 2013

By Stephen W. Hiemstra

Art by Sharron Beg
Art by Sharron Beg

How will you remember 2013?

Did you watch the corn grow in 2013 or did God break into your life in ways that will change you forever? The Greeks had two words for time which capture this distinction: chronos time and kairos time.

Chronos time is clock time. It is often associated with the Goya painting of Saturn eating his son—a grotesque reminder that each minute on the watch can only be enjoyed during the minute and then it is gone. In chronos time, the corn grows and we watch.

By contrast, kairos time is decision time. When God steps into our lives from outside of time, we experience His presence as crisis. We are changed forever. We are forced to answer the question—who are you, really? This is the experience of God that we read about in Paul when he says: Do not be conformed to this world, but be transformed by the renewal of your mind, that by testing you may discern what is the will of God, what is good and acceptable and perfect (Romans 12:2 ESV). In kairos time, we grow and God becomes real.

I will always remember 2013 as the year that I graduated from seminary. For 5 years, I worked towards the goal of graduating seminary before my 60th birthday. I passed that benchmark this month. My diploma now hangs on the wall in my office—a kind of metaphorical Ebenezer (a pile of stones erected to God)[1].

School is a transition with a beginning (how you got admitted), a middle (all the classes, experiences, and uncertainties), and an ending (graduation). Looking back, I am not sure which stage in the transition was most stressful!

Other transitions that I will remember include—seeing family members grow, witnessing my first death, preaching my first emotional sermon (http://bit.ly/1eQEqbn), writing my first book (http://bit.ly/1fVF6c9), developing the social side of social media (e.g. http://bit.ly/19ROE26), and first appreciation Christmas. Of these, appreciation Christmas was probably the most meaningful.

At the Hiemstra Christmas party this year, we got everyone in a room together and shared. The usual fare was been to share things like—what are you most thankful for? Or, what was your most memorable Christmas memory? However, this year I proposed that we go around the room and take turns being appreciated. When it is your turn, everyone else in the room takes a turn telling you why they appreciate you. People really got into this—we spent about two hours appreciating one another. This exercise only works for groups that really know one another, but for these groups it can be a really healing experience [2]. I will never forget.

Return tomorrow to view my Top 10 Postings in 2013.

Thank you for supporting this online ministry.

Happy New Year!

1/ Then Samuel took a stone and set it up between Mizpah and Shen and called its name Ebenezer; for he said, Till now the LORD has helped us (1Samuel 7:12 ESV).

2/ I owe this idea to my Clinical Pastoral Education instructor, Jan Humphreys (http://bit.ly/19zhgPb).

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JOHN 21: From Fish to Sheep

fish_12232013Follow me, and I will make you fishers of men and women (Matthew 4:19).

By Stephen W. Hiemstra

When I worked in the hospital with psychiatric patients, I met a man with a huge Bible. When we spoke, he opened up this Bible and showed me the many color photographs. When he spoke with the other patients, they ridiculed him for his lessons which he had never applied to his own life. He fashioned himself as a fisherman, but he was no shepherd.

John 21 tells the story of the disciples going fishing on the Sea of Tiberius, but catching nothing all night long. In the morning, a man on the beach advises them to try again, but on the other side of the boat. When they do, they are overwhelmed with fish. At that point, they recognize that the man on the beach is Jesus.

After Jesus offers the disciples breakfast on the beach, he asks Peter a pointed question three times. He said: Simon, son of John, do you love me? He said to him, Yes, Lord; you know that I love you. He said to him, Tend my sheep (v 16). Because Peter had denied him three times on the night of his arrest, the three-fold question and response served to restore Peter to relationship with Jesus and leadership among the disciples. Both events took place in front of a charcoal fire (John 18:18; 21:9)

In Matthew 4:19, Jesus promises that if the disciples follow him, then he will make them fishers of men and women. Now, Jesus is asking Peter—and us—to give up fishing and become a shepherd. A fisherman catches fish with nets and hooks, but a shepherd feeds and protects sheep. This is a story about Christian leadership—the English word, pastor, originally meant shepherd.

The story continues. Jesus goes on to prophesy Peter’s death by crucifixion (v 18). At this point Peter’s rivalry with John rises to the surface. Peter asks: Lord, what about this man? (v 21) At this point, Jesus rebukes Peter: what is that to you? You follow me! (v 22) In other words, as Christian leaders we are to lead out of obedience to Christ, not rivalry with one another.

It is interesting that three of the four Gospels (Matthew, Mark, and John) end with the disciples being given new responsibilities for evangelism. Matthews ends with the Great Commission (Matthew 28:19-20); Mark ends with the disciples preaching everywhere and performing miracles (signs); John ends with a lesson on Christian leadership. Only in Luke do the disciples simply hang around the church. However, Luke is like an extended preface to the Book of Acts (also written by Luke) where virtually the entire book is about early church evangelism and the work of the Holy Spirit.

The Gospel of John is not bashful about describing its objective.  John writes: these are written so that you may believe that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God, and that by believing you may have life in his name (John 20:31).  My prayer is that his objective is accomplished.

QUESTIONS

  1. When and where does this chapter begin? Who is present? (vv 1-2)
  2. What were the disciples doing? Why? (v 3)  Were they successful?
  3. How does Jesus reveal himself to the disciples?(vv 4-6)
  4. Who recognized him first? (v 7) How?  How does Peter react?
  5. What does Jesus do for them? (vv 8-12)
  6. What two things does this breakfast menu bring to mind? (v 9; Hints: John 6:11; 18:18)
  7. What does Jesus ask Peter three times? (vv 15-17)Why is it significant?  What is the lesson?
  8. What does Jesus prophesy? (vv 18-19) What is the significance?
  9. Why does Peter ask Jesus about John? What is the response?  (vv 20-23) Why do we care?

10.Who wrote this gospel?  (vv 24-25)

 

JOHN 21: From Fish to Sheep

Also see:

Vanhoozer: How Do We Understand the Bible? Part 1 

Roadmap of Simple Faith

Bothersome Gaps: Life in Tension

Christian Spirituality 

Looking Back 

Other ways to engage online:

Author site: http://www.StephenWHiemstra.net, Publisher site: http://www.T2Pneuma.com.

Newsletter at:http://bit.ly/2018_Trans

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Juan 21: De Pescado a Ovejas

fish_12232013Por Stephen W. Hiemstra

Vengan, síganme —les dijo Jesús—, y los haré pescadores de hombres y mujeres (Mateo 4:19)

Cuando trabajaba en el hospital con pacientes psiquiátricos, conocí a un hombre con una enorme Biblia. Cuando hablamos, él abrió la Biblia y me mostró las numerosas fotografías en color. Cuando habló con los otros pacientes, que se burlaban de él por sus lecciones que nunca se había aplicado a su propia vida. Él formó a sí mismo como un pescador, pero no era un pastor de ovejas.

Juan 21 cuenta la historia de los discípulos de ir de pesca en el Mar de Tiberio, pero sin pescar nada durante toda la noche. Por la mañana, un hombre en la playa les aconseja que intentarlo de nuevo, pero por el otro lado de la embarcación. Cuando lo hacen, se sienten abrumados con el pescado. En ese punto, reconocen que el hombre en la playa es Jesús.

Después de que Jesús ofrece a los discípulos el desayuno en la playa, le pide a Peter una pregunta directa tres veces. Él dijo: Simón, hijo de Juan, ¿me amas? —Sí, Señor, tú sabes que te quiero. —Cuida de mis ovejas (v 16). Debido a que Pedro lo había negado tres veces en la noche de su arresto, la pregunta tres veces y la respuesta sirven para restaurar Peter a la relación con Jesús y el liderazgo entre los discípulos. Ambos eventos tuvieron lugar en frente de un fuego de carbón (Juan 18:18; 21:09)

En Mateo 4:19, Jesús promete que si los discípulos lo siguen, entonces él los hará pescadores de hombres y mujeres. Ahora, Jesús está pidiendo a Pedro, ya nosotros, a abandonar la pesca y llegar a ser un pastor. Un pescador captura peces con redes y anzuelos, pero un pastor alimenta y protege a las ovejas. Esta es una historia sobre el liderazgo en el Cristianismo—la palabra, pastor, originalmente significaba pastor de ovejas.

La historia continúa. Jesús va a profetizar la muerte por crucifixion de Pedro (v 18). En este punto, la rivalidad de Pedro con Juan sube a la superficie. Pedro le pregunta: Señor, ¿qué pasa con este hombre? (v 21) En este punto, Jesús reprende a Pedro: ¿a ti qué? Tú sígueme no más (v 22). En otras palabras, como líderes cristianos hemos de llevar a cabo de la obediencia a Cristo, ni rivalidad entre nosotros.

Es interesante que tres de los cuatro Evangelios (Mateo, Marcos y Juan) terminan con los discípulos están dadas las nuevas responsabilidades para el evangelismo. Matthews termina con la Gran Comisión (Mateo 28:19-20), Marcos termina con los discípulos a predicar por todas partes y haciendo milagros (signos), Juan termina con una lección sobre el liderazgo cristiano. Sólo en Lucas no los discípulos simplemente cuelgan alrededor de la iglesia. Sin embargo, Lucas es como un prefacio prolongado con el Libro de los Hechos (también escrito por Lucas), donde prácticamente todo el libro es acerca de la evangelización de la iglesia temprana y la obra del Espíritu Santo.

El Evangelio de Juan no es tímido acerca de la descripción de su objetivo. Juan escribe:  éstas se han escrito para que ustedes crean que Jesús es el Cristo, el Hijo de Dios, y para que al creer en su nombre tengan vida (Juan 20:31 NVI).  Mi oración es que su objetivo se logra.

Juan 21: De Pescado a Ovejas

Otras Métodos de Conectar:

Sitio del autor: http://www.StephenWHiemstra.net, Sitio del publicador: http://www.T2Pneuma.com.

Boletín de autor: http://bit.ly/Advent_Mas_2018

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JOHN 20: Encounters with the Risen Christ

seeds_12162013By Stephen W. Hiemstra

Truly, truly, I say to you, unless a grain of wheat falls into the earth and dies, it remains alone; but if it dies, it bears much fruit (John 12:24 ESV).

How do you respond to the risen Christ?

In John 20 we observe 8 encounters with the risen Christ.

1. The first encounter is really not an encounter so much as an expression of fear of the unknown.  Mary Magdalene saw that the stone had been move from the grave and she ran to tell Peter and the others.  Actually, she did not even look inside although she reported that Jesus’ body had been taken (vv 1-2).  Maybe she did look, but we are not told.

2. The second encounter is Peter’s.  Peter ran on Mary’s report to see the tomb, found it empty, and left (vv 2-7).  We are not told how Peter responded to the empty grave.

3. The third encounter is that of the “Other Disciple”, presumably John, who was with Peter.  He experienced everything that Peter did (and ran faster), but, unlike Peter, we are told that he “saw and believed” (vv 7-8).  He too then left.

4. The fourth encounter is Mary Magdalene’s second encounter.  She remains at the gravesite grieving.  This time, however, she peeks inside the tomb and sees two angels who ask her why she is crying (vv 12-13).  The angel’s presence in the tomb is most curious because neither Peter nor the other disciple saw angels only moments earlier.

5. A fifth encounter occurs, this time between Mary Magdalene and Jesus.  Jesus is standing right next to her and she does not recognize him (v 14).  He repeats the angel’s question (why are you crying?) and then asks her: who are you seeking?  She then begins to quiz him about the whereabouts of Jesus’ body (v 15).

6. A sixth encounter occurs as Jesus addresses Mary by name.  She recognizes and grabs him.  He cautions her not to hold on to him, but sends her to the other disciples with the word of his resurrection (vv 16-17).

7. The seventh encounter is with the disciples behind locked doors later that evening.  Here Jesus comforts them, commands them to evangelize, grants them the Holy Spirit, and bestows on them the power to forgive or retain sins. The dialog is often interpreted as  commissioning service (vv 19-23) to which Thomas is absent.  When Thomas is told about it, he refuses to believe that Jesus had risen from the dead.

8. The eighth encounter arises a week later when Thomas is present and on seeing Jesus comes to faith.  Thomas’ initial doubt and subsequent belief are significant for us because Jesus’ words—Have you believed because you have seen me? Blessed are those who have not seen and yet have believed (John 20:29 ESV)—appear directed as us.  Interestingly, John closes out the chapter by commenting on his writing objective—that his readers come to faith (v 31).

We each come to Christ in different ways.  Reviewing these encounters we observe 4 things:

(1) Revelations to the disciples differ in time and content,

(2) The disciples do not all respond immediately in faith,

(3) Jesus reveals himself to some, but not others, and

(4) Mary Magdalene ties these accounts together.

How has Jesus revealed himself to you?

QUESTIONS

  1. How has Jesus revealed himself to you? How have you responded?
  2. When did Mary Magdalene visit Jesus’ tomb? (v 1) Why is it interesting?
  3. How did Mary Magdalene know Jesus’ body was gone? Did she look into the tomb? (vv 1-2)
  4. How did she respond to this discovery? (v 2)
  5. How do Peter and the other disciple respond to Mary? (vv 3-4)  Who is the other disciple?
  6. Why did the other disciple wait before entering the tomb? (v 5)
  7. How did Peter and the other disciple respond to the empty tomb? (vv 5-10)
  8. How did Mary respond to the empty tomb? (v 11)
  9. Why did Mary see angels where Peter and the other disciple did not? (vv11-12)
  10. What did Mary ask the angels? What did she ask? (vv 12-13)
  11. Why did Mary not recognize Jesus? (vv 14-15)
  12. When did she recognize Jesus? (v 16) When did she recognize Jesus?  Why is this episode theologically interesting?
  13. What does Jesus say to Mary? (v 17)
  14. How did she respond? (v 18) Why did the disciples not run back to the garden?
  15. How does Jesus appear to the disciples? (v 19)
  16. What 4 things does Jesus say to the disciples? (vv 19-23)What is this series of statement like?
  17. What is significant about Thomas’ encounter with Jesus?(vv 24-29)  What happens?  How does he respond?
  18. What is John’s purpose in writing? (vv 30-31)

 

JOHN 20: Encounters with the Risen Christ

Also see:

JOHN 21: From Fish to Sheep

Vanhoozer: How Do We Understand the Bible? Part 1 

Roadmap of Simple Faith

Bothersome Gaps: Life in Tension

Christian Spirituality 

Looking Back 

Other ways to engage online:

Author site: http://www.StephenWHiemstra.net, Publisher site: http://www.T2Pneuma.com.

Newsletter at:http://bit.ly/2018_Trans

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Juan 20: Encuentros con Cristo Vivo

seeds_12162013Por Stephen W. Hiemstra

Ciertamente les aseguro que si el grano de trigo no cae en tierra y muere, se queda solo. Pero si muere, produce mucho fruto (Juan 12:24 NVI).

¿Cómo responde usted a Cristo resucitado?

En Juan 20 se observa 8 encuentros con el Cristo resucitado.

1. El primer encuentro no es realmente un encuentro tanto como una expresión del miedo a lo desconocido. María Magdalena vio que la piedra había sido movida de la tumba y ella corrió a decirle a Pedro ya los otros. En realidad, ella ni siquiera miró en el interior a pesar de que informó de que el cuerpo de Jesús había sido tomado (vv 1-2). Tal vez ella se veía, pero no se nos dice.

2. El segundo encuentro es Pedro. Pedro corrió sobre el informe de María, a ver el sepulcro, la encontró vacía, y se fue (vv 2-7). No se nos dice que Pedro respondió a la tumba vacía.

3. El tercer encuentro es la del “otro discípulo”, presumiblemente John, que estaba con Peter. Él experimentó todo lo que hizo Pedro, pero, a diferencia de Pedro, se nos dice que él “vio y creyó” (vv. 7-8). Él también se fue.

4. El cuarto encuentro es el segundo encuentro de María Magdalena. Ella permanece en el duelo tumba. Esta vez, sin embargo, ella mira a escondidas en el interior de la tumba y ve dos ángeles que le preguntaba por qué está llorando (vv 12-13). La presencia del ángel en la tumba es más curioso porque ni Pedro ni el otro discípulo vieron ángeles que sólo momentos antes.

5. Un quinto encuentro se produce, esta vez entre María Magdalena y Jesús. Jesús está de pie junto a ella, y ella no lo reconoce (v 14). Repite la pregunta del ángel (¿por qué lloras?) Y luego le pregunta quién buscáis? A continuación, comienza a hacerle preguntas sobre el paradero del cuerpo de Jesús (v 15).

6. Un sexto encuentro se produce mientras Jesús se dirige a María por su nombre. Ella reconoce y lo agarra. Él le advierte que no se aferran a él, pero envía a los otros discípulos con el mensaje de su resurrección (vv. 16-17).

7. El séptimo encuentro es con los discípulos detrás de puertas cerradas más tarde esa noche. Aquí Jesús los consuela, les manda a evangelizar, les concede el Espíritu Santo, y les otorga el poder de perdonar o retener los pecados. El cuadro de diálogo se lee como un servicio de ordenación o la puesta en servicio (vv 19-23).

Thomas está ausente y se niega a creer en la resurrección. Thomas’ ausencia es importante para nosotros porque de Jesús’ palabras – ¿Te has creído porque me has visto? Bienaventurados los que no vieron, y creyeron (Juan 20:29 NVI) – dirigido aparecerá como nosotros.

8. El octavo encuentro surge una semana después, cuando Thomas está presente y en el acto viene a la fe. Entonces Jesús bendice a aquellos de nosotros que han llegado a la fe sin la vista. Curiosamente, John cierra el capítulo de revelar su objetivo por escrito – que nosotros, los lectores, creemos (v 31).

Cada uno de nosotros venimos a Cristo de diferentes maneras. La revisión de estos encuentros que observamos 4 cosas:

(1) Las revelaciones a los discípulos difieren en tiempo y contenido,

(2) Los discípulos no todos responden de inmediato en la fe,

(3) Jesús se revela a algunos, pero no en otros, y

(4) María Magdalena vincula estas cuentas juntos.

Como ha puesto de manifiesto el propio Jesús para usted?

Juan 20: Encuentros con Cristo Vivo

Otras Métodos de Conectar:

Sitio del autor: http://www.StephenWHiemstra.net, Sitio del publicador: http://www.T2Pneuma.com.

Boletín de autor: http://bit.ly/Advent_Mas_2018

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