Clark Rejects the Rationality of Evidentialism, Part 2

Kelly James Clark, Return to ReasonKelly James Clark. 1990. Return To Reason: A Critique of Enlightenment Evidentialism and a Defense of Reason and Belief in God. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans. (Go to part 1)

Review by Stephen W. Hiemstra

One reason that many people dismiss apologetics is influence of the romantic period (early nineteenth century) has led many Christians to focus on heart rather than head in their faith. Pastors have been known to say—“people won’t care what you know until they see how much you care.” While there is truth in this expression, head and heart cannot be separated.

After the Great Awakening of the eighteenth century, Jonathan Edwards observed that, if revivals were not followed by sound teaching, the formerly fervent new believers soon wandered off, never to be seen again in church. We witnessed this very same pattern in the weeks after 9-11 as the new faces in church after the attack soon disappeared again. Clearly, we need apologetic insights into the faith that we adopt with our hearts in order to remain faithful when our fervent hearts cool.

In part one of this review of Kelly James Clark’s book, Return to Reason, I gave an overview of Clark’s argument about evidentialism

“Evidentialism [according to Clark] maintains that a belief is rational for a person only if that person has sufficient evidence or arguments or reasons for that belief.” (3)

I will examine in part 2 three arguments for the existence of God laid that Clark critiques: the cosmological argument by Richard Taylor, William Paley’s argument from design, and a probabilistic argument outlined by Richard Swinburne. Clark describes attempts to prove God’s existence from facts known about the natural world at natural theology (15).

The Cosmological Argument

This argument begins with a question: “Why is there something rather than nothing?” (17) Citing Taylor, Clark appeals to the principle of sufficient reason:

“…for every positive truth there is some sufficient reason which makes it true. There are two ways that statements can be true. Statements can be contingently true, which means their being true depends on something else; and statements may be necessarily true, which means their truth is not dependent on the truth of other statements.” (18)

Taylor sees no reason to doubt that the existence of the world is contingent on something else that we do not know (the chain of causality must lead to something eternal and imperishable). This eternal and imperishable being is God (21-22).

While the conclusion from this argument that God exists is obvious to a theist (someone who already believes in God), a non-theist sees no reason to conclude that the world is contingent on anything (23). The theist stops when God is presented; the non-theist asks whether God is contingent (24). Thus, the pre-supposition that God exists renders the argument moot.

The Argument from Design

Clark summarizes Paley’s argument succinctly:

“The world shows design; design implies a designer; hence, the world requires a designer.” (27)

Paley arguments that the existence of a stone poses no evidence that anyone ever put it there, but if one found a watch lying on the beach, the precision and subtly of a watch begs the question of who made it.

Hume argued, unlike with a watch, we have no experience with how the universe was made and so it appears as a unique item. Our explanations are therefore by analogy, not direct knowledge. Suppose, for example, the universe were created by a committee, not just one person. Thus, we cannot intuit the existence of God from design, except perhaps through anthropomorphism (51). Darwin believed that instead of design, the extinction of species pointed to an absence of design and to evolution as the mechanism for the creation of complex animal features (33-34).

A Probabilistic Argument

Clark summarizes Swinburne’s probabilistic argument as follows: 

  1. “The existence and design of the world—including morality, free moral agents, religious experience—are extremely improbable without the hypothesis of theism.
  2. The hypothesis of theism significantly raises the probability of the existence and design of the world.
  3. The hypothesis of theism explains and unites under a sign hypothesis an otherwise disparate and unlikely set of phenomena—the existence and design of the world, religious experience, miracles, and evil.
  4. The hypothesis of theism has sufficiently intrinsic plausibility.
  5. Therefore, it is like that God exists” (38).

Mackie looks at the same evidence and concludes that a materialistic or naturalistic origin for the universe is more likely, particularly because we have never observed a person without a body (38-39). Consequently, once again we see that the probabilistic argument depends heavily on the fundamental beliefs that you hold, prior to the argument rendering the argument moot (40).

Clark argues that because each of the arguments for God’s existence (or non-existence) do not stand alone, independent of prior beliefs, experience from the natural world cannot be used to substantiate the existence of God. In statistics, we are taught that relationships among observe data cannot determine causality, a restatement of Clark’s conclusion. It is accordingly pointless to pursue the requirements for proof under evidentialism (43). He therefore proceeds to explore alternatives.

In his book, Return To Reason, Kelly James Clark examines the Enlightenment claim that insufficient evidence exists to believe that God exists, an argument that he describes as evidentialism. He reviews three arguments for the existence of God and their weaknesses. He then goes on to reject evidentialism as a standard for determining rationality and to discuss the rationality of belief in God. Clark’s concise presentation should interest anyone who cares about apologetics.

References

Darwin, Charles. 1958. Autobiography (Orig Pub 1887). Edited by Francis Darwin. New York: Dover.

Hume, David. 1980. Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion (Orig Pub 1776). Edited by Richard H. Popkin. Indianapolis: Hackett.

Mackie, J.I. 1982. The Miracle of Theism. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Paley, William. 2002. The Principles of Moral and Political Philosophy (Orig Pub 1785). Indianapolis: Liberty Fund. Online: http://oll.libertyfund.org/titles/paley-the-principles-of-moral-and-political-philosophy. Cited: 18 November 2017.

Swinburne, Richard. 1979. The Existence of God. Oxford: Clarendon.

Taylor, Richard. 1974. Metaphysics. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall.

Clark Rejects the Rationality of Evidentialism, Part 2

Also see:

Plantinga Defends Merits of Confessional Faith

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Advent Prayer 2017

Nativity
Art by Stephen W. Hiemstra

By Stephen W. Hiemstra

Most Merciful Father,

Draw me near to you, oh Lord, of joyful times!

Let me bless you and praise your name—

“Wonderful Counselor, Mighty God, Everlasting Father, Prince of Peace” (Isa 9:6).

For you have written your law on our hearts (Jer 31:33) and

given us a new song, a marvelous thing of your own creation (Ps 98).

In what other season have we so much joy?

For such, we give thanks through the power of your Holy Spirit and

in Jesus’ name, Amen.

Advent Prayer 2017

Also see:

Giving Thanks 

A Place for Authoritative Prayer 

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Chapter 17 of Revelation: Babylon

CloudsBy Stephen W. Hiemstra

Fallen, fallen is Babylon; and all the carved images of her gods
he has shattered to the ground (Isa 21:9).

What do you get when you cross a false trinity and a pornographic goddess? The answer is clearly Revelation 17.

The woman named here is explicitly associated with a great city, Babylon (v 18), yet the images are of Rome. For example, a well-known coin of this period pictures the Emperor Vespasian (AD 69 to 79) on the front and the goddess Roma on the back straddling the seven hills of Rome. Adding the beast from Daniel 7 completes our demonic image.

The message here is to picture graphically the unholy alliance between politics and religion in opposition to God. The image of an unholy city as a prostitute doing business with the world brings to mind a prophecy against the city of Tyre (Isaiah 23:17). The religious corruption of Israel by a woman of Sidon (a port city closely associated with Tyre) brings to mind Queen Jezebel—the prophet Elijah’s nemesis (1 Kgs 16:31).

Babylon is a city with a reputation. In Genesis 10:8-10, we read about the first empire builder, Nimrod, whose capital city is Babel. Genesis 11:1-11 records the story of Babel where the people wanted to make name for themselves and started building a tower to heaven setting themselves in opposition to God. Babel latter became known as Babylon.

Picturing Rome as the new Babylon brings to mind the story of Babel and its opposition to God which is explicitly stated in verse 14: They will make war on the Lamb, and the Lamb will conquer them, for he is Lord of lords and King of kings, and those with him are called and chosen and faithful (Rev 17:14). The religious focus of this opposition is suggested in the cup image (an anti-Eucharist image), in the phrase—it was and is not and is to come—(an anti-Alpha and Omega allusion; Rev 17:8; 1.8), and in the image of a prostitute used by the prophet Hosea to picture a disobedient Israel (Hos 9:1).

John’s prophetic imagery pictures a society obsessed with sex and money allied with secular religion. Sex: marriages were breaking down; a defective love dominated—Roma spelled backwards is amor! Money: Rome was unparalleled in its wealth as it policed and colonized the known world. Religion: the Emperor cult tolerated any religion that did not challenge the power of the Emperor. Rome persecuted Christians because they claimed to worship a jealous (exclusive) God who refused to admit competitors (Exod 20:3-5).

Sound familiar?

Questions

1. What does the angel invite the apostle John to see? (vv 1-2)
2. Where does the spirit carry him? (v 3)
3. How is the woman dressed? (vv 4-5)
a. What is on her head?
b. What does this remind you of? (e.g. Rev 13:17).
4. Why does John Marvel? (v 6)
5. What is the story told by the angel? (vv 8-17)
6. What city is in view? (v 18)

Chapter 17 of Revelation: Babylon

Also see:

Chapter 16 of Revelations: Seven Bowls and Armageddon 

Chapter 1: Alpha and Omega 

Christian Spirituality 

Looking Back 

Other ways to engage online:

Author site: http://www.StephenWHiemstra.net, Publisher site: http://www.T2Pneuma.com.

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Clark Rejects the Rationality of Evidentialism, Part 1

Kelly James Clark, Return to ReasonKelly James Clark. 1990. Return To Reason: A Critique of Enlightenment Evidentialism and a Defense of Reason and Belief in God. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans. (After December 5: Go to part 2)

Review by Stephen W. Hiemstra

For those of us that grew up believing in God at an early age, apologetics seems a bit unreal. How do you prove that your parents exist? The answer is that you do not prove their existence; you simply point to them. Still, the arguments give comfort that your own existence makes sense and includes continuity with those that went before, something like a genealogy study proves royal lineage.

Introduction

Kelly James Clark’s book, Return to Reason, focuses on a crucial critique offered during the Enlightenment:

“Evidentialism maintains that a belief is rational for a person only if that person has sufficient evidence or arguments or reasons for that belief.” (3)

This statement is an epistemological presupposition, which is an untested, presumption about how we know something, has intuitive appeal because we all want to believe that we are rational thinkers. However, as Clark argues, almost nothing that we believe actually meets this criterion which, particularly in view of the damage that it has done to the Christian faith community, leaves us wondering if a bias has been exhibited merely by posing this standard for belief.

Responses to Evidentialism

Clark points to three basic responses to evidentialism. The first response (theistic evidentialism) is that some people believe that sufficient evidence for God’s existence can be demonstrated. The second response (fideism) is to admit that sufficient evidence does not exist, but we must simply have faith that God exists. The third response is to reject evidentialism (reformed epistemology) and develop an alternative definition for rationality. Clark writes in support of this third response and argues that evidentialism is doubly flawed (6-8).

Outline of Book

Clark writes his book in four parts:

  1. “Proving God’s Existence: Problems and Prospects
  2. God and Evil
  3. The Irrelevance of Evidentialism: God—Hypothesis or Person?
  4. Return to Reason: The Irrationality of Evidentialism” (vii-viii).

In view of the importance of these arguments, I will write this review in two parts. Part one will focus on Clark’s argument. In part 2, I will examine Clark’s problems with the classical apologetics.

Background on Clark

Kelly James Clark (1956- ) is currently Senior Research Fellow at the Kaufman Interfaith Institute and Professor at Grand Valley State University in Grand Rapids Michigan. Clark received his Phd from the University of Notre Dame where his dissertation advisor was Alvin Plantinga. He has held professorships at Calvin College, Oxford University, University of St. Andrews, Notre Dame & Gordon College. He also served as Executive Director for the Society of Christian Philosophers from 1994-2009. Clark’s books include Religion and the Sciences of Origins, Abraham’s Children, The Story of Ethics, When Faith Is Not Enough, and 101 Key Philosophical Terms of Their Importance for Theology.[1]

Assessment

In his book, Return To Reason, Kelly James Clark examines the Enlightenment claim that insufficient evidence exists to believe that God exists, an argument that he describes as evidentialism. He reviews three arguments for the existence of God and their weaknesses. He then goes on to reject evidentialism as a standard for determining rationality and to discuss the rationality of belief in God. Clark’s concise presentation should interest anyone who cares about apologetics.

Footnotes

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kelly_James_Clark. @KellyJamesClark.

Clark Rejects the Rationality of Evidentialism, Part 1

Also see:

Plantinga Defends Merits of Confessional Faith

Books, Films, and Ministry

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Discernment Prayer

By Stephen W. Hiemstra

Loving Father,

I praise you for your loving presence in my life during this year.

For you alone are holy and stand outside time and space,

and I cannot approach you on my own,

but only through your love, covered by the blood of Jesus and in your willingness to seek me out.

I confess that I have not been the perfect son–

my faith is weak; sins are many;  weaknesses seem limitless.

Forgive me; teach me to be a more perfect son.

Thank you for the many blessings of this year–

for work completed, relationships deepened, healings received,

and the opportunity for greater service.

In the power of your Holy Spirit, give me the mind of Christ,

that my heart will be opened, my mind touched, and my hands strengthened

that I may more perceive your will more fully and draw closer to you day by day.

In Jesus’ precious name, Amen.

 

Discernment Prayer

Also see:

Giving Thanks 

A Place for Authoritative Prayer 

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Chapter 16 of Revelations: Seven Bowls and Armageddon

CloudsBy Stephen W. Hiemstra

Pour out your wrath on the nations that know you not, and on the peoples that call not on your name, for they have devoured Jacob; they have devoured him and consumed him, and have laid waste his habitation (Jer 10:25).

Where God’s wrath is in view, there is normally a hardened heart. Who has a hardened heart here in Revelation?

Revelation 16 is all about God’s wrath and we know it is important because normally when the Bible repeats important topics. The seven bowls in judgment parallel the seven trumpets that we saw earlier in Revelation 8-10 and both reiterate the plagues on Egypt seen in Exodus (7-10). In each case, the parallelism is in the object of wrath: earth, sea, rivers, sun, realm of the wicked, the Euphrates, and the world1.

For example, the first bowl is a plague on the earth. Earlier we read: The first angel blew his trumpet, and there followed hail and fire, mixed with blood, and these were thrown upon the earth (Rev 8:7). Now we read: So the first angel went and poured out his bowl on the earth, and harmful and painful sores came upon the people who bore the mark of the beast and worshiped its image (Rev 16:2). In Exodus we read: Then the LORD said to Moses, Stretch out your hand toward heaven, so that there may be hail in all the land of Egypt, on man and beast and every plant of the field, in the land of Egypt (Exod 9:22).

The other topic in Revelation 16 that generates much discussion is the battle at Armageddon. The problem is that Armageddon is mentioned nowhere else in scripture. The Hebrew suggests a reference to Har Mageddon which means Mount Mageddon. Two prominent interpretations are often cited.

First, several OT passages mention the battle in the plain of Megiddo—old Hebrew leaves out the vowels so the spelling is the same as Mageddon. Because the righteous King Josiah was killed there, it would poetic justice to have Satan’s armies defeated there (I Chr 35:22-23).

The problem that a plain is not a mount suggests a subtler translation of the Greek transliteration of Armageddon as the Mount of Assembly ( הַר־מוֹעֵ֖ד (Isa 14:13 WTT)) or, in other words, God’s holy mountain, Mount Zion or Jerusalem. This interpretation is interesting because God’s holy mountain is attacked by Satan, the king of the pit referenced in Revelation 9:11P1F2P. Thus, the parallelism between the trumpets and the bowls includes an interesting twist.

In Exodus, Pharaoh’s harden heart that is the target of God’s wrath (Exod 7:3-4). If a hardened heart brings wrath, how do we acquire a softened heart and keep it soft?

Object Trumpets Bowls Exodus

1 Earth Rev 8:7 Rev 16:2 Exod 9:22
2 Sea Rev 8:8 Rev 16:3 Exod 7:17
3 Rivers Rev 8:9 Rev 16:4 Exod 7:17
4 Sun Rev 8:12 Rev 16:8 Exod 10:21
5 Realm Rev 9:1 Rev 16:10 Exod 10:4
6 Euphrates Rev 9:13-14 Rev 16:12 Exod 8:2
7 World Rev 10:7 Rev 16:17 Exod 9:22, 19:16-19

References

Beale, G.K. 1999. The New International Greek Testament Commentary: The Book of Revelations. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans. Pages 808-810

Questions

  1. What prompts the angels to begin pouring the bowls? (v 1)
  2. Who is the beast? (Rev 13:1-2, 11)a.Where is he from? (Rev 11:7) b. What is his mark? (Rev 13:16-18; 14:9-11) c. Who opposes the beast? (v 1)
  3. Who are the unclean spirits? (vv 13-14) What do they look like?
  4. What is verse 15? (Matt 24:43)
  5. How do we understand Armageddon (v 16)
  6. What happens after the seventh bowl is poured out?
  7. What happens in verses 18-21?

Chapter 16 of Revelations: Seven Bowls and Armageddon

Also see:

Chapter 15 of Revelation: Heavenly Songs 

Chapter 1: Alpha and Omega 

Christian Spirituality 

Looking Back 

Other ways to engage online:

Author site: http://www.StephenWHiemstra.net, Publisher site: http://www.T2Pneuma.com.

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Prayers Make Amazon 100

Prayers by Stephen W. Hiemstra
Available on Amazon.com

Prayers by Stephen W. Hiemstra makes Amazon 100 among prayerbooks.

In the fall of 2016, I published three prayerbooks as EBooks and priced them at 99 cents.

Readers told me that they especially liked my prayers. So I abstracted the prayers from my prior books and published them separately as promotional EBooks.

The first of these, Prayers, is now my most popular book on Amazon and has ranked among the top 100 prayerbooks that Amazon sells.

Check it out!

 

Prayers Make Amazon 100

 

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Thanksgiving Praise from Psalm 103, New Living Translation

Let all that I am praise the LORD; with my whole heart, I will praise his holy name.  Let all that I am praise the LORD; may I never forget the good things he does for me. He forgives all my sins and heals all my diseases.  He redeems me from death and crowns me with love and tender mercies. He fills my life with good things. My youth is renewed like the eagle’s!

The LORD gives righteousness and justice to all who are treated unfairly.  He revealed his character to Moses and his deeds to the people of Israel. The LORD is compassionate and merciful, slow to get angry and filled with unfailing love. He will not constantly accuse us, nor remain angry forever.  He does not punish us for all our sins; he does not deal harshly with us, as we deserve.  For his unfailing love toward those who fear him is as great as the height of the heavens above the earth.  He has removed our sins as far from us as the east is from the west.

The LORD is like a father to his children, tender and compassionate to those who fear him.  For he knows how weak we are; he remembers we are only dust.  Our days on earth are like grass; like wildflowers, we bloom and die.  The wind blows, and we are gone– as though we had never been here.  But the love of the LORD remains forever with those who fear him. His salvation extends to the children’s children of those who are faithful to his covenant, of those who obey his commandments!

The LORD has made the heavens his throne; from there he rules over everything.  Praise the LORD, you angels, you mighty ones who carry out his plans, listening for each of his commands.  Yes, praise the LORD, you armies of angels who serve him and do his will!  Praise the LORD, everything he has created, everything in all his kingdom.

Let all that I am praise the LORD.

Thanksgiving Praise from Psalm 103, New Living Translation

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Sandberg and Grant Examine Grief and Resilience

Sandberg and Grant Option BSheryl Sandberg[1] and Adam Grant.[2] 2017. Option B: Facing Adversity, Building Resilience, and Finding Joy. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.

Review by Stephen W. Hiemstra

About half of the patients I visited with in the emergency room during my time at Providence Hospital suffered physical maladies as a consequence of unresolved grief. Presenting diagnoses, such as backaches, strokes, heart attacks, failed psychiatric medicines, suicides, addictions, obesity, and head aches, often resulted from unresolved grief over the loss of a close family member. In such cases, treating the presenting ailment proved secondary to helping them cope with their loss. American society does not cope with grief adequately so we mask our grief with physical ailments.

Introduction

In their book, Option B, Sheryl Sandberg and Adam Grant explore Sandberg’s journey with the loss of her husband Dave Goldberg early in 2014 during a vacation in Mexico. They write:

“This book is my and Adam’s attempt to share what we’ve learned about resilience. We wrote it together, but for simplicity and clarity the story is told by me (Sheryl) while Adam is referred to in the third person.” (11)

You might think, oy vey, another book about grief, but you would be wrong for two reasons. First, Sandberg and Grant really do explore the question of resilience, providing something other than another book outlying the stages of grief. Second, Sandberg is the chief operating officer at Facebook and Grant is a well-known psychologist at the Wharton School. This book is a deep dive into resilience (or self-care) with both personal and professional applications in view. Still, grief is normally the jumping off point for the resilience issues discussed.

Three Ps

An important insight that Sandberg and Grant return to throughout the book draws from the three Ps of Martin Seligman:

  1. “Personalization—the belief that we are at fault;
  2. Pervasiveness—the belief that an event will affect all areas of our life; and
  3. Permanence—the belief that the aftershocks of the event will last forever.” (16)

The three Ps are important because they amplify the losses that we suffer and we hammer them in our own heads through negative self-talk.

In the death of Sandberg’s husband, the three Ps each played an important role in deepening her experience of grief. She initially blamed herself for his death (personalization), felt that everything was horrible—especially for her kids (pervasive), and believed that the pain of grief would go on forever (permanence; 16-20). Her counselors worked hard to disavow each of these lies/half-truths that she had told herself, helping to ease her discomfort and accelerate her recovery.

Core Beliefs of Resilience

Sandberg and Grant see four core beliefs that aid resilience, especially in children:

  1. They have some control over their lives;
  2. can learn from failure;
  3. matter as human beings;
  4. have real strengths to rely on and share. (111)

What stands out from this list of beliefs is how extremely counter-cultural they appear. If anything, our culture reinforces just the opposite beliefs. In fact, Sandberg and Grant immediately cite a study showing that two-thirds of at-risk kids fail to develop such resilience and suffer serious consequences already in adolescence (111).

Assessment

Sheryl Sandberg and Adam Grant’s new book, Option B, opens up the question of grief through the eyes of someone who has experienced it deeply. Christians often say that when God closes a door, he opens a window—Option B is that window. Sandberg and Grant walk their readers through that window with flair and grace.

References

Seligman, Martin E. P. 1991. Learned Optimism: How to Change Your Mind and Your Life. New York: Pocket Books.

Footnotes

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sheryl_Sandberg.

[2] http://www.adamgrant.net. @AdamMGrant.

Sandberg and Grant Examine Grief and Resilience

Also see:

Card Explores Lament; Aids with Grief 

Books, Films, and Ministry

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Autumn Prayer

Fall Leaves 2014
Photo by Stephen W. Hiemstra

By Stephen W. Hiemstra

Almighty Father,

We praise you for being the alpha and the omega,

the beginning and the end of things seen and unseen.

Thank you for letting us enjoy the breath of life,

spring and summer, autumn and the winter to come.

Thank you especially for your presence,

for in your presence is healing and life and joy.

Show us how to be your disciple in each and every season of life,

in its newness and fullness, in its setbacks and joys,

for alone we would perish as many do, day after day.

For in each day is new life and joy, learning and maturity, condemnation and judgment, sickness and death,

but you shelter us in each day in your infinite wisdom,

that through the power of your Holy Spirit, we will someday see you face to face.

In Jesus’ name, Amen.

Autumn Prayer

Also see:

Giving Thanks 

A Place for Authoritative Prayer 

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