3 Reasons that Christian Apologetics and Spirituality Should not be Separated

Art by Stephen W. Hiemstra
Art by Stephen W. Hiemstra

By Stephen W. Hiemstra

Interviewers love experts. Specialists dominate public discourse. Problems arise when one field depends heavily on another and experts have to depart from their expertise. The fields of Christian apologetics and spirituality suffer from this problem.

Christian apologetics focuses on defending the truth claims of Christianity[1] while spirituality focuses on living them out[2]. Balance between these two fields is clearly needed in a world of imperfect information because learning more about the truth claims of Christianity informs how they are lived out and vice versa. Thus, treating either field independently of the other renders the spirituality dead and the apologetics impractical.

At least three reasons can be cited for why apologetics and spirituality should be closely linked.

The first reason for unity of apologetics and spirituality arises in the context of the apologist’s favorite Bible verse fragment:

“…always being prepared to make a defense to anyone who asks you for a reason for the hope that is in you…” (1 Peter 3:15 ESV)

The context of this fragment—in fact, the entire book of 1 Peter—is one of “lifestyle evangelism” in the midst of persecution. For example, we read:

“Now who is there to harm you if you are zealous for what is good? But even if you should suffer for righteousness’ sake, you will be blessed. Have no fear of them, nor be troubled, but in your hearts honor Christ the Lord as holy … [fragment] … having a good conscience, so that, when you are slandered, those who revile your good behavior in Christ may be put to shame.” (1 Peter 3:13-16)

In other words, the Apostle Peter says to shame your tormentors with your godly lifestyle!  We to offer a verbal defense only in the context of an authentic Christian lifestyle (spirituality).

The second reason for unity of apologetics and spirituality arises because their separation affects a division between heart (spirituality) and mind (apologetics)—an example of Greek dualism. The Bible teaches that heart and mind cannot be separated, in part, because God created them both just like God created the earth and heaven (Genesis 1:1). Jesus’ bodily resurrection also speaks to the unity of the body (heart) and spirit (mind; e.g. Luke 24:36-43).

The need for unity of heart and mind has been debated throughout church history.  For example, Pastor and theologian Jonathan Edwards (2009, 13)—when writing in 1746 about the effects of the Great Awakening—noted that both head and heart were necessary for effective discipling. More recently, Matthew Elliott has argued that God of the Bible is an emotionally stable deity and consistently expresses emotions in keeping with his character. This is unlike other deities in the ancient world who were typically characterized as selfish and capacious in dealing with humans[1]. In other words, God displays emotions consistent with his thinking more frequently than we do with ours!

The third reason for unity of apologetics and spirituality arises from the observation that separation leads to serious lifestyle problems. If our spirituality is not informed by our thinking, then we will be more likely to act solely on emotions—doing what feels good.

Working as a chaplain intern in a Washington hospital in 2011 and 2012, I noticed a disturbing trend among patients. More than half of all patients admitted to the emergency room had problems stemming from relational problems and poor life-style choices[2]. Overweight patients came in with diabetes, asthma, joint problems, and cardiac problems. Men passed out on the street from excessive drinking or other drug abuses. Young men and women fearful of contracting AIDS came in to be tested. These trends were even more pronounced among psyche patients.

We should expect these patient outcomes—doing what feels good comes naturally. The standard behavioral learning model teaches that even an amoeba will response to a positive stimulus by repeating the behavior that evoked the positive stimulus and doing less of the behavior associated with a negative stimulus. When the standard behavioral model breaks down, as it does in most moral dilemmas, then disaster directly follows. For example, this is the story of many addictions.[3] In this respect, the Apostle Paul lamented:  “For I have the desire to do what is right, but not the ability to carry it out” (Romans 7:18).

Knowing that apologetics and spirituality inform each other, are treated as part of a unified whole in the Bible, and serve to strengthen our moral resolve in a world of temptations, Christians and theologians need to reflect on how this integration of heart and mind can be strengthened both in theory and in practice. Let’s start today.

References

Chan, Simon.1998. Spiritual Theology: A Systematic Study of the Christian Life. Downers Grove: IVP Academic.

Cross, John G. and Melvin J. Guyer. 1980. Social Traps.  Ann Arbor:  University of Michigan Press.

Edwards, Jonathan. 2009. The Religious Affections (orig pub 1746). Vancouver:  Eremitical Press.

Elliott, Matthew A. 2006. Faithful Feelings: Rethinking Emotion in the New Testament.  Grand Rapids: Kregel Academic and Professional.

Sproul, R.C. 2003. Defending Your Faith: An Introduction to Apologetics. Wheaton: Crossway Books.

 

[1] “The term apologetics comes from the Greek word apologia, which literally means ‘a reasoned statement or a verbal defense.’” (Sproul 203,13).

[2] “Generally,spirituality refers to the kind of life that is formed by a particular type of spiritual theology. Spirituality is the lived reality, whereas spiritual theology is the systematic reflection and formalization of that reality.” (Chan 1998,16).

[3] Elliott distinguishes 2 theories of emotions:  the cognitive theory and the non-cognitive theory. The cognitive theory of emotions argues that “reason and emotion are interdependent” (47) while the non-cognitive theories promote the separation of reason and emotion (46). In other words, the cognitive theory states that we get emotional about the things that we believe strongly. Our emotions are neither random nor unexplained—they are not mere physiology. Elliott writes: “if the cognitive theory is correct, emotions become an integral part of our reason and our ethics” (53-54) informing and reinforcing moral behavior. Review at: (http://wp.me/p3Xeut-1dc).

[4] Speaking later with the head surgeon, he corrected my observation.  He reported that not half the patients but three-quarters of them were admitted with relational problems and poor lifestyle choices.

[5] Behavioral psychologists are well aware of this moral dilemma.  See, for example, Cross and Guyer (1980).  Review at: (http://wp.me/p3Xeut-Zp).

 

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Living Testimony

Life_in_Tension_web“But even if you should suffer for righteousness’ sake, you will be blessed. Have no fear of them,
nor be troubled, but in your hearts honor Christ the Lord as holy, always being prepared
to make a defense to anyone who asks you for a reason for the hope
that is in you; yet do it with gentleness and respect…”
(1 Peter 3:14-15 ESV)

By Stephen W. Hiemstra

The New Testament is full of a allusions to persecution which are mostly edited out when passages are cited in worship services and other uses.

For example, the citation above is normally cited entirely out of context as: “always being prepared to make a defense to anyone who asks you for a reason for the hope that is in you” (1 Peter 3:15 ESV). The snipet is entirely upbeat and usually cited as the reason to argue apologetically for the faith. At least three things are missing when this is done. First, there is no recognition of the context of persecution. Second, there is no recognition of Peter’s admonition to speak “with gentleness and respect”. Finally, the verbal defend often highlighted entirely misses the point that the entire letter focuses on “lifestyle evangelism”—living out the faith, not talking about the faith, and only that one phrase mentions a verbal defend.

In fact, one could argue that practicing for a verbal defense is contrary to scripture, because Jesus says:

“And when they bring you before the synagogues and the rulers and the authorities, do not be anxious about how you should defend yourself or what you should say, for the Holy Spirit will teach you in that very hour what you ought to say.” (Luke 12:11-12 ESV)

The tension that we feel with others over our faith is expected because of the work and power of the Holy Spirit manifested in our lives. Notice the order of events in this admonition:

“But you will receive power when the Holy Spirit has come upon you, and you will be my witnesses in Jerusalem and in all Judea and Samaria, and to the end of the earth.” (Acts 1:8 ESV)

It is the power of the Holy Spirit acting in us that leads us to become witnesses.

Because it is the power the Holy Spirit that leads us into this tension, it is neither our propensity to be vocal nor a desire to take risks that leads us to witness for Christ. The opposite is also true. It is neither our shyness in front of people nor our risk aversion that holds us back in witnessing for Christ—in our joy in salvation we want to tell the whole world! However, fear can quelch the power of the Holy Spirit in our lives. Barthel and Edling (2012, 101) note:

“When individuals in groups are motivated by fear of the opinion of other people (what others personally think about them) more than the fear of God, their hearts grow cold to the Spirit of God. Lacking God-consciousness, there is no restraining the motivation of the heart; only world passions and popularity with crowd control. This is common in church conflicts. Defensiveness, self-righteousness, and pride rule the day when people vien in to the fear of man.”

It is interesting that where we frequently pray for protection the early church prayed for boldness in their witness [1]. The problem facing the church of Laodicea, so common today, seems to have come later. As the Apostle John prophesied:

“I know your works: you are neither cold nor hot. Would that you were either cold or hot! So, because you are lukewarm, and neither hot nor cold, I will spit you out of my mouth.” (Rev. 3:15-16 ESV)

Finney (1982,74-76) lists six consequences of quelching the Holy Spirit in our lives:

  1. Darkness of mind—the truth makes no useful impression.
  2. Coldness towards religion.
  3. Holding various errors in religion.
  4. Disbelief.
  5. Delusion regarding one’s spiritual state.
  6. Attempts to justify wrongdoing.

In this list we observe problems of tension with ourselves, with others, and with God. Fear of others, particularly persecution, leads us to abandon our faith both in God and in ourselves in a kind of downward spiral. Is it any wonder than in our times of timid faith, many are are burdened daily with debilitating anxiety and treated for depression even on sunny days? One wonders if increasing persecution is less about other people than it is about our own weakness and doubt—like a feeding frenzy observed among wounded fish.

Barthel and Edling (2012, 89) observe churches in conflict snapping to their senses when leaders are reminded of the need to remain God-centered and to reframe conflict around well-choice questions for reflection. Of course, this rings a bit like sound pastoral advice for us as individuals as well.

What is your favorite scripture passage?

[1] “And now, Lord, look upon their threats and grant to your servants to continue to speak your word with all boldness, while you stretch out your hand to heal, and signs and wonders are performed through the name of your holy servant Jesus. And when they had prayed, the place in which they were gathered together was shaken, and they were all filled with the Holy Spirit and continued to speak the word of God with boldness.” (Acts 4:29-31 ESV)

REFERENCES

Barthel, Tara Klena and David V. Edling. 2012. Redeeming Church Conflicts: Turning Crisis into Compassion and Care. Grand Rapids: BakerBooks.

Finney, Charles. 1982. The Spirit-Filled Life (Orig pub 1845-61). New Kensington: Whitaker House.

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Blessing Those that Persecute

Life_in_Tension_web“Bless those who persecute you; bless and do not curse them.” (Romans 12:14 ESV)

By Stephen W. Hiemstra

Increasingly even in America, Christians find themselves the target of isolation, persecution, and even murder. During 2015 alone, a woman was jailed for publically espousing Biblical views on marriage [1], a church was the site of a mass shooting [2], and Christians were publicly beheaded by Islamic extremists [3]. These were only the most recent events. Few of us will forget the shooting of Cassie Bernall at Columbine High School for professing faith in Jesus Christ in 1999 [4]. Persecution of the faith is part of everyday experience.

From the cross, “Jesus said, Father, forgive them, for they know not what they do.” (Luke 23:34 ESV)

Persecution reminds us of who we are, who we belong to, and what we are about.

Who We Are. Jesus links persecution directly to our identity saying: “Rejoice and be glad, for your reward is great in heaven, for so they persecuted the prophets who were before you.” (Matt 5:12 ESV) In effect, persecution for righteousness sake validates our faith and puts us in league with the prophets.

Who We Belong To. We are citizens of heaven (Phil 3:20) and undocumented workers here on earth. The Apostle Peter writes:

“Once you were not a people, but now you are God’s people; once you had not received mercy, but now you have received mercy. Beloved, I urge you as sojourners and exiles to abstain from the passions of the flesh, which wage war against your soul. Keep your conduct among the Gentiles honorable, so that when they speak against you as evildoers, they may see your good deeds and glorify God on the day of visitation.” (1 Peter 2:10-12 ESV)

If our identity is in Christ, people look at us differently expecting to see Christ in us [5]. If we behave like everyone else, then we bring shame on Christ and on ourselves.

What We Are About. Again, the Apostle Peter writes:

“Now who is there to harm you if you are zealous for what is good? But even if you should suffer for righteousness’ sake, you will be blessed. Have no fear of them, nor be troubled, but in your hearts honor Christ the Lord as holy, always being prepared to make a defense to anyone who asks you for a reason for the hope that is in you; yet do it with gentleness and respect, having a good conscience, so that, when you are slandered, those who revile your good behavior in Christ may be put to shame. For it is better to suffer for doing good, if that should be God’s will, than for doing evil.” (1 Peter 3:13-17 ESV)

Persecution is part of the mix of trials that we should expect to suffer [6].

Persecution also helps us establish priorities. Poorly focused objectives divides scarce church resources to the point that almost nothing at all is accomplished. Persecution helps us focus on Christ’ mission, not our own.

When Jesus talks about us being salt, it is attached to warning. Listen again to his words:

“You are the salt of the earth, but if salt has lost its taste, how shall its saltiness be restored? It is no longer good for anything except to be thrown out and trampled under people’s feet.” (Matt 5:13 ESV)

Trampling is a good analogy for the persecution of a church that has lost its way. Its better to be persecuted for righteousness sake (1 Peter 3:17).

 

[1] http://www.cnn.com/2015/09/07/politics/kim-davis-same-sex-marriage-kentucky-governor.

[2] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charleston_church_shooting.

[3] http://www.cnn.com/2015/04/19/africa/libya-isis-executions-ethiopian-christians.

[4] http://www.cassierenebernall.org.

[5] “Listen to me, you who pursue righteousness, you who seek the LORD: look to the rock from which you were hewn, and to the quarry from which you were dug.” (Isa 51:1 ESV)

[6] “Who is to condemn? Christ Jesus is the one who died– more than that, who was raised– who is at the right hand of God, who indeed is interceding for us. Who shall separate us from the love of Christ? Shall tribulation, or distress, or persecution, or famine, or nakedness, or danger, or sword? As it is written, For your sake we are being killed all the day long; we are regarded as sheep to be slaughtered. No, in all these things we are more than conquerors through him who loved us. For I am sure that neither death nor life, nor angels nor rulers, nor things present nor things to come, nor powers, nor height nor depth, nor anything else in all creation, will be able to separate us from the love of God in Christ Jesus our Lord.”
(Rom. 8:34-39 ESV)

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Defending the Hope We Have

photoBy Stephen W. Hiemstra

Riverside Presbyterian Church, November 17, 2013

SERMON SERIES REMINDER

Good morning! It is good to see everyone again.

Today we finish up our sermon series on John Stott’s book, Basic Christianity.  For those of you who have not had time to read the book, I would encourage you to pick up a copy and take a look—it is well worth the time.

PRAYER OF INVOCATION

Let’s begin with a word of prayer:

Almighty Father, Beloved Son, Holy Spirit, we praise you for your compassionate love and presence in our lives.  Make your presence especially known to us this morning.  In the power of your Holy Spirit, inspire the words spoken and illuminate the words heard.  In Jesus’ precious name, Amen.

SERMON TEXT

Our scripture reading today is taken from 1 Peter 3:13-17.  Hear the word of the Lord:

Now who is there to harm you if you are zealous for what is good? But even if you should suffer for righteousness’ sake, you will be blessed. Have no fear of them, nor be troubled, but in your hearts honor Christ the Lord as holy, always being prepared to make a defense to anyone who asks you for a reason for the hope that is in you; yet do it with gentleness and respect, having a good conscience, so that, when you are slandered, those who revile your good behavior in Christ may be put to shame. For it is better to suffer for doing good, if that should be God’s will, than for doing evil (1 Peter 3:13-17 ESV).

Here ends the reading.

INTRODUCTION

Have you ever had a close friend who was a seeker?  You know, someone who is obviously curious about God—seeking—but unable to take the step of faith.

I have—my friend’s name was Dave.  Dave and I used to get together for lunch perhaps once a month to shoot the breeze about politics, bank regulation, and religion—especially religion.  We read C.S. Lewis together, watched R.C. Sproul videos, talked about Billy Graham, and debated back and forth for years.  Dave was curious, but as a retired lawyer he was also skeptical.  He just could not accept the idea of the God of the bible.  At best, he would admit that the existence of God was logical, just not the God of the Bible.

In December 2006, we had lunch together as usual.  Two weeks later, Dave’s wife called me.  She told me that Dave had gotten pneumonia; was on a ventilator; and was not responding to treatment.  Should she turn off the ventilator?  She asked.

I was dumbfounded.  Dave was gone.  He had not accepted Christ.

I felt like I had failed Dave and failed God.  Above my bed hangs an original painting depicting the crucifixion of Christ given me by Dave’s widow.  It was a wedding gift which meant nothing to her but everything to me.  It is for me a reminder of the seriousness of our faith and the need to share it.

As the Apostle Peter (1 Peter 3:15) reminds us:  always being prepared to make a defense to anyone who asks you for a reason for the hope that is in you (2 X).

BACKGROUND

Our scripture lesson today comes from Peter’s first letter to the churches in what is now modern Turkey.  Peter probably wrote this letter from Rome [1] in the early AD 60s before he was martyred by Emperor Nero for the faith [2].

These churches were undergoing severe persecution [3] in the midst of a society that was both multi-cultural and poly-theistic.  Today we might describe their society as postmodern—that is, minus the illusion of modernity.

The hostility of the Roman empire to the Christian message arose primarily because Christians maintained the wild idea that only one God exists and we come to him only through Jesus Christ.  Multiple gods were no problem—they could be bought off with feast days and bribed with sacrifices. You see, the Romans considered themselves very tolerant of foreign gods—at least the tinnie-winnie variety.

TEXT
 
Three points in our scripture reading today have direct bearing our witness.  We are to:
  1. Be zealous for the good (v 13);
  2. Be prepared to offer a defense for our hope (v 15); and
  3. Speak with gentleness and respect (v 15).

Let me address each in turn.

The first point is:  Be zealous for the good. 

It is interesting that Peter sees the Christian lifestyle as our first and most important witness [4].  Listen to what Peter says in chapter 2:

Beloved, I urge you as sojourners and exiles to abstain from the passions of the flesh, which wage war against your soul. Keep your conduct among the Gentiles honorable, so that when they speak against you as evildoers, they may see your good deeds and glorify God on the day of visitation (1 Peter 2:11-12 ESV).

Do you catch the spirit of what Peter is saying?  We are to be holy, not only because God is holy, but because it is a witness to those who are not.  In other words, be a holy disease that will infect other people!

Be zealous for the good.

The second point is:  Offer a defense. 

The word used here is apologia (ἀπολογία) which means to offer a defense or to speak against [5].  Our word, apologetics, is derived from the same root at apologia, but is used more specifically to defend a particular doctrine or point of view.

What is interesting about Peter’s statement about apologetics is that his emphasis is on living the word, not speaking it [6].  Basically, Peter spends most of his letter, particularly chapter two, talking about righteous living and he devotes only about one sentence about offering a verbal defense.  In fact, in verse 16 after he mentions offering a verbal defense he returns to his emphasis on living the word:

having a good conscience, so that, when you are slandered, those who revile your good behavior in Christ may be put to shame (1 Peter 3:16 ESV).

Shame them! We are to shame our critics with our good works!  In some sense, for Peter offering a verbal defense is a matter more of spin control than vigorous argumentation.  The point is that while no one is argued into the kingdom of God, having been loved into the kingdom people need to know that Jesus is the source of that love and why it all makes sense.

Offer a defense.

The third point is:  Speak with gentleness and respect.

This third point follows from the first two.  If people notice that you are zealous for the good and can coherently articulate your faith, then you have their attention.  However, if your attitude is wrong then they will resist your message simply out of stubbornness.

Psychiatrist, Milton Erickson, worked with patients using hypnosis and succeeded with patients no one else could reach. What is interesting about Erickson’s approach is that he never gave his patients advice or asked them to do anything.  Instead, he would hypnotize his patients and tell them stories.  For example, instead of advising someone to take an aspirin for a headache, he would tell a story about a man who took an aspirin which cured his headache.  The point is that people’s resistance to advice and suggestions is so strong that even under hypnosis they refuse to listen! (Rosen 1991).

Speak with Gentleness and Respect.

APPLICATION

Let me offer a couple of points about how to share your faith from John Stott’s Basic Christianity.

Let me start by saying that you need to share your faith, not my faith or John Stott’s faith.  Your faith is the most important witness for two reasons.

First, you have the most credibility with the person that you are talking with.  How you came to faith matters more to them than anyone else’s journey of faith.  Tell them how and why you came to faith.

Second, the tough part in witnessing is not reading a book;  the tough part in witnessing is not the mechanics of witnessing; the tough part in witnessing is understanding your own faith walk (2X).  The best way to understand your own walk is to talk about it or, better yet, to write it out in the form of a spiritual autobiography.  If you need suggestions, Richard Peace has written a book called, Spiritual Autobiography.  Check my blog (http://bit.ly/19KoqU0) for a review of Peace’s book.

Stott summarizes his book making two points.  Stott’s first point is that the great privilege as children of God is relationship with God (2X); Stott’s second point is that our great responsibility as children of God is growing that relationship (2X).  Stott observes:  everyone loves children, but no one wants them to stay in the nursery (Stott 2008, 162).  It is the nature of relationships either to grow or to decline; relationships never stay in one place.  Stott sees our growth needing to occur in two dimensions:  understanding our faith and practicing holiness (163-166). Clearly, I could talk at great length on both issues, but let’s move on.

FINAL POINT

After my friend, Dave, passed away I felt like I had failed him and failed God in my witness.  However, that was not the end of the story.

Several months after Dave died, his widow spoke to my wife, Maryam, about our visits and she made the point—Dave was concerned about my Christian naiveté—he was hoping that he could convince me to give it up. Of course, he failed—I enrolled in seminary about two years later.

Our privilege as Christians is to share the Gospel but we must leave what happens after that to God.

CLOSING PRAYER

Will you pray with me?

Almighty father. We thank you for blessing us in a thousand ways—more ways than we can imagine.  Thank you especially for granting us faith.  Help us to live out our faith; to be willing to defend it; and to speak about it with gentleness and respect.  In power of your Holy Spirit, inspire the words we speak and illumine the words that people hear.  In Jesus’ precious name, Amen.


[1]Peter (1 Peter 5:13) refers to Rome as “Babylon” (Perkins 1998, 11) which parallels the Apostle John references in Revelations (e.g. Fallen, fallen is Babylon the great! She has become a dwelling place for demons, a haunt for every unclean spirit, a haunt for every unclean bird, a haunt for every unclean and detestable beast (Revelation 18:2 ESV)).

[2] Rome burned in AD 64.  Emperor Nero blamed the Christians and a great persecution began.  Peter was himself martyred by Nero during this period (McKnight 1996, 28-29). Nero’s reign ended in AD 68. Bartlett (1998, 230-236) reviews concerns of recent authors that the Apostle Peter was not the author of this epistle. The arguments against apostle authorship stems from an assumption that a Galilean fisherman probably would lack a sophisticated style, theology, and knowledge of Greek.  This assumption is never defended and stands in contrast with the picture of an articulate Peter speaking on Pentecost in Acts 2 who is able to convince 3,000 men to come to faith through a single speech.

[3]See, for example, 1 Peter 1:6-7 (Perkins 1995, 15-16).

[4]Bartlett (1998, 238-240) appears disappointed with lifestyle ministry, particularly as it affects the role of women.  He assumes lifestyle ministry is submissive and ineffective without demonstrating that a more assertive ministry is consistent with Gospel witness or, for that matter, effective in evangelism.

[5]BDAG (964, 2):  the act of making a defense, defense.  See also:  2 Corinthians 11 and Philippians 1:7.

[6]Bartlett (1998, 291) rightly observes that a defense could include legal proceedings, but the context here is more general.

REFERENCES

Bartlett, David L.  1998.  “The First Letter of Peter” pages 227-319 of New Interpreter’s Bible:  A Commentary in Twelve Volumes.  Vol. XII.  Nashville:  Abingdon Press.

Bauer, Walter (BDAG). A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature. 3rd ed. Ed. Frederick W. Danker. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2000. <BibleWorks. v.9.>. 

BibleWorks.  Norfolk: BibleWorks, LLC., 2011. <BibleWorks v.9>.

McKnight, Scot.  1996.  The NIV Application Commentary:  1 Peter.  Grand Rapids:  Zondervan.

Peace, Richard.  1998.  Spiritual Autobiography:  Discovering and Sharing Your Spiritual Story.  Colorado Springs:  NavPress.

Perkins, Pheme. 1995.  Interpretations, A Bible Commentary for Teaching and Preaching:  First and Second Peter, James, and Jude.  Louisville:  John Knox Press.

Rosen, Sidney.  1991.  My Voice will Go with You:  The Teaching Tales of Milton H. Erickson (Orig pub 1982). New York:  W.W. Norton & Company.

Stott, John.  2008.  Basic Christianity (Orig pub 1958).  Grand Rapids:  Eerdmans.

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