Problem of Boundaries. Monday Monologues, February 18, 2019 (podcast)

Stephen W Hiemstra, 2018
Stephen W Hiemstra, 2018

By Stephen W. Hiemstra

In today’s podcast, I will offer a Prayer about Healthy Limits and talk about the Problem of Boundaries.

After listening, please click here to take a brief listener survey (10 questions).

To listen, click on the link below.

Hear the words; Walk the steps; Experience the joy!

Problem of Boundaries. Monday Monologues, February 18, 2019 (podcast)

Also see:

Monday Monologue On March 26, 2018 

Other ways to engage online:

Author site: http://www.StephenWHiemstra.net, Publisher site: http://www.T2Pneuma.com.

Newsletter: http://bit.ly/Welcome_NY_2019

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Problem of Boundaries

Stephen W. Hiemstra, Living in Christ

By Stephen W. Hiemstra

Boundaries define who we are and who we are not. Undefended boundaries are an invitation to abuse and thievery. Whenever pain shows itself, we need to establish a new rule and defend it.

If our primary identity is in Christ, then we emulate Christ in all that we do, our duties in life are defined by Christ, and we act in all things expecting Christ’s return. Our boundaries reflect this life process both in our emotions and thinking.

The Good Samaritan

Cloud and Townsend (1992, 25) explain boundaries in these terms: 

“Just as homeowners set out physical property lines around their land, we need to set mental, physical, emotional, and spiritual boundaries for our lives to help us distinguish what is our responsibility and what isn’t.”

Cloud and Townsend apply their concept of boundaries in interpreting Jesus’ parable of the Good Samaritan.  Jesus tells this story in Luke’s Gospel:

A man was going down from Jerusalem to Jericho, and he fell among robbers, who stripped him and beat him and departed, leaving him half dead.  Now by chance a priest was going down that road, and when he saw him he passed by on the other side. So likewise a Levite, when he came to the place and saw him, passed by on the other side. But a Samaritan, as he journeyed, came to where he was, and when he saw him, he had compassion. He went to him and bound up his wounds, pouring on oil and wine. Then he set him on his own animal and brought him to an inn and took care of him. And the next day he took out two denarii and gave them to the innkeeper, saying, Take care of him, and whatever more you spend, I will repay you when I come back (Luke 10:30-35).

Why is this story about the Good Samaritan rather than about the Great Samaritan? The Samaritan did not walk on the other side of the road like the priest or the Levite, but he also did not drop everything and nurse the man back to health. Instead, the Samaritan focused on what he was able to do. Then, he delegated further assistance to the innkeeper and continued his trip (Cloud and Townsend 1992, 38-39). In other words, the Good Samaritan saved the man’s life and, still, displayed healthy boundaries.

A Personal Audit

Cloud (2008, 69) suggests that a good place to start working on boundaries is with an audit. The purpose of this audit is to measure where you spend your time, disconnects between time spent and personal values, and what personal issues contribute to the problem.  This method of analysis is reminiscent of what Miller and Rollnick (2002, 38) referred to as gap analysis—highlighting the discrepancy between present behavior and broader goals and values.

Christian Boundaries

The concept of boundaries sounds a lot like law which raises a deep theological controversy about the relationship between law and Gospel, particularly when Gospel is defined in highly licentious terms. In parsing this controversy it is helpful to recognize that in the Gospels the Pharisees are pictured presenting a narrow interpretation of law to make it doable while Jesus normally widens the interpretation making compliance impossible without God’s divine intervention. More generally, Jesus speaks about principles while the Pharisees speak about rules.

When law in the commandments are expressed in principle, sin is also a violation of the principle of love in relationships with God and with neighbor (Matt 22:36-40).  Matthew outlines Jesus providing five cases where Mosaic Law is enlarged by considering underlying attitudes rather than technical compliance:  murder, adultery, the taking of oaths, application of lex talionis, and love of neighbor.⁠1  Each is introduced with an expression:  “you have heard it said.”  The case of murder is illustrative:  

“You have heard that it was said to those of old, You shall not murder; and whoever murders will be liable to judgment.’ But I say to you that everyone who is angry with his brother will be liable to judgment.” (Matt 5:21-22).  

In other words, the act of murder starts with an attitude of anger.  It is, therefore, sinful to become angry for the wrong reasons because it leads to murder and, implicitly, violates the attitude of love.

In this context, it is clear that Jesus is not relinquishing the law or diminishing it in any way, as Jesus says: “Do not think that I have come to abolish the Law or the Prophets; I have not come to abolish them but to fulfill them.” (Matt 5:17) In this context, fulfilling the law implies a more stringent condition than the law, not a more lenient one, where three states of nature are possible: noncompliance with law (transgression), technical compliance (Pharisee position), and fulfilling the law (Gospel). Contrasting law and Gospel would be to compare the latter two states.

By widening the law, Jesus makes it obvious that we must make room in our lives for God and live within his healthy boundaries. The Ten Commandments cannot therefore be abandoned; mere compliance is an indication that we have not centered our lives on Christ. The point is not to try to become the “Great Samaritan,” but rather to lean on the Holy Spirit to guide on what to do and what not to do.

References

Cloud, Henry.  2008. The One-Life Solution:  Reclaiming Your Personal Life While Achieving Greater Professional Success. New York:  HarperCollins.

Cloud, Henry and John Townsend. 1992. Boundaries: When to Say YES; When to Say NO; To Take Control of Your Life. Grand Rapids: Zondervan.

Miller, William R. and Stephen Rollnick. 2002. Motivational Interviews: Preparing People for Change. New York: Guilford Press.

1 Matt 5:21, 5:27, 5:33, 5:38, and 5:43.

Problem of Boundaries

Other ways to engage online:

Author site: http://www.StephenWHiemstra.net, Publisher site: http://www.T2Pneuma.com.

Newsletter: http://bit.ly/Welcome_NY_2019

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Monday Monologues: Boundaries, September 3, 2018 (podcast)

Stephen W. Hiemstra, www.StephenWHiemstra.net
Stephen W. Hiemstra, 2017

By Stephen W. Hiemstra

In today’s podcast, I pray about spiritual gifts and talk about boundaries.

To listen, click on the link below.

After listening, please click here to take a brief listener survey (10 questions).

Monday Monologues: Boundaries, September 3, 2018 (podcast)

Also see:

Monday Monologue On March 26, 2018 

Other ways to engage online:

Author site: http://www.StephenWHiemstra.net, Publisher site: http://www.T2Pneuma.com.

Newsletter at: http://bit.ly/2018_Trans

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Classifications as Boundaries

Stephen W. Hiemstra, Simple FaithBy Stephen W. Hiemstra

Common characteristics of many postmodern philosophies and secular religions are that they impose implicit costs on other members of society and impede normal character development. The idea that becoming an adult can be a verb—adulting—suggests that growth in maturity has been impeded deliberately presumably to extend youth, which is, of course, a form of denial with tremendous implications for faith, life, and society.

Problems with Individualistic Philosophies

For example, if a normal, relatively healthy young person goes to the doctor and is prescribed medication, no problem, but what if that same young person has more medications than your grandmother? Instead of regular exercise, she invests in expensive cosmetics and repeated plastic surgeries; instead of making time for friends, he invests in a lot of boy-toys and plays video games every waking hour; both require anxiety medication and background music to distract from dark thoughts. The pattern continues as it becomes obvious that the normal challenges of life are being deferred or medicated rather than dealt with so the individual in question can retain control of every aspect of life without learning from their mistakes or acting on the advice of others, such as family members or the community of faith.

Why is this pattern a critique of the Christian worldview? When carried to extreme, the focus on individual control causes problems even for the individual that pose less of a problem for those willing to live in and take advice from their families and the community of faith. The Ten Commandments, for example, can be viewed as provided healthy spiritual and relational boundaries necessary for a healthy life. The prohibition against adultery, if routinely violated, can isolate one from friends, break up families, and contribute to violence. Having suffered these outcomes, one might easily get prescribed anxiety medication even though the better (and potentially cheaper) solution would be to live within the boundary—do not commit adultery.

Other Boundaries

The Book of Genesis begins by outlining a number of binary separations—heaven and earth, light from dark, day from night, evening and morning, water from dry land, male and female (Gen 1). Later, God rested on the seventh day—a completely arbitrary decision. He also brought all the animals and birds to Adam to see what he would name them (Gen 2). These separations and names gave structure (basic nouns in language) to how we think about time and the physical world around us. 

It is hard to image language developing in the absence of clear definitions yet today the simple definitions from nature, especially with respect to gender, are being challenged, once again, to allow greater freedom to choose for individuals and businesses chiding under the implicit restrictions they impose. For example, historian David Hart (2009, 223-226) sees that in postmodernism the nation state has finally removed all accountability to the church, an objective of governments for the past two thousand years. Once again, when carried to extreme, the focus on individual control causes problems even for the individual that pose less of a problem for those willing to live in and take advice from their families and the community of faith. 

The Problem of Spillover Effects

If an industrial plant employed a coal-burning energy source and polluted the local environment cause disease and early to local residents, then these spillover effects would be charged back to the firm in the form of regulations requiring cleaner fuel sources, additional taxes, and other regulations. But what if personal choices resulted in spillover effects being imposed on the rest of society?

Fuzzing boundaries, even just conceptually, can not only lead to anxiety, engaging in risky behaviors can also lead to disease, suicide, and early death.⁠1 All these outcomes affect society by raising the cost of providing health care and related social services. If these behaviors lower birth rates, the funding of social programs, like social security and medicare, are threatened because the programs currently tax the young to pay for the old. Lower birth rates may also encourage excessive immigration, raising social tensions. If these behaviors breakup families (or never even form them), then the costs of child raising and education may be transferred to others. 

The point is that risky behaviors encouraged by individualistic philosophies frequently transfer the costs of this freedom to others in the form of spillover effects. Consenting adults who engage in risky sexual activity or use drugs or just behave badly impose burdens on society. While the courts frequently attempt to cope with these problems, even the problem of delegating such decisions to the courts entails undesirable social costs.

Implicit Tradeoffs

What is better—respecting obvious boundaries in a life under God or transgressing these boundaries and paying the consequences? The grace that we have in Christ is open to believers, but everyone else is subject to the law. One has to wonder whether the real beneficiaries of these individualistic, alternative lifestyles aren’t just the drug companies who sell the expensive pills and the corporations who love to sell products perpetuating an illusion of youth and hire employs who have lost all hope of a better life than working a low-wage job, twenty-four hours a day, seven days a week.The price of this indulgence and denial can be high—who wants to wake up after youth has passed you by and with it any hope of a real career and normal family life?⁠2

References

Butterfield, Rosaria Champagne. 2012.  The Secret Thoughts of an Unlikely Convert:  An English Professor’s Journey into Christian Faith.  Pittsburgh:  Crown & Covenant Publications.

Gagnon, Robert A. J.  2001. The Bible and Homosexual Practice: Texts and Hermeneutics.  Nashville: Abingdon Press.

Hart, David Bentley. 2009. Atheist Delusions: The Christian Revolution and Its Fashionable Enemies. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Footnotes

1 For example, Gagnon (471-473) compares the risks of homosexual behavior to alcoholism and find that the risks are much greater.

Rosario Butterfield (2012) realized her mistake in adopting a lesbian lifestyle after she had grown too old to have children of her own.

Classifications as Boundaries

Also see:

A Roadmap of Simple Faith

Christian Spirituality 

Looking Back 

A Place for Authoritative Prayer 

Other ways to engage online:

Author site: http://www.StephenWHiemstra.net, Publisher site: http://www.T2Pneuma.com.

Newsletter at:http://bit.ly/2018_Trans

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A Right Spirit and Clean Heart

Life_in_Tension_web“Create in me a clean heart, O God, and renew a right spirit within me.
Cast me not away from your presence, and take not your Holy Spirit from me.”
(Ps. 51:10-11 ESV)

When we think of the word, holy (ἅγιος in Greek), we usually think of moral purity, which is one definition. The other primary definition is: “pertaining to being dedicated or consecrated to [set apart to] the service of God” (BDAG 61). This is also the word for saint.

The idea of holy as both separation and moral purity is fundamental in the Old Testament understanding of who God is. The Book of Genesis begins by saying: “In the beginning, God created the heavens and the earth.” (Gen 1:1 ESV) In the act of creation God performs two acts of separation: non-being is separated from being and the heavens and the earth are created separate from one another. God then continues by creating other separations—darkness and light; morning and evening; dryland and water; male and female; and so on. And these separations were declared to be good.

Today, we often refer to separations as boundaries. Boundaries have the characteristics of being clear and concrete. Later in Exodus 20, when God gives Moses the Ten Commandments, the law provides boundaries defining who is and who is not a member of the household of God. Members follow God’s law; non-members break the law. These laws are not imposed; they are voluntary taking the form of a covenant between the people of Israel and God. The covenant language is obvious because the commandments begin with a reminder of the benefits of participating in the covenant: “I am the LORD your God, who brought you out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of slavery.” (Exod. 20:2 ESV) In other words, you were slaves, now you are free—you owe me!

In the second giving of the covenant in Deuteronomy (second book of the law), the benefits are laid out in greater detail in the form of blessings [for following the law] and curses [for not following the law]. For example, we read:

“And if you faithfully obey the voice of the Lord your God, being careful to do all his commandments that I command you today, the Lord your God will set you high above all the nations of the earth. And all these blessings shall come upon you and overtake you, if you obey the voice of the Lord your God. Blessed shall you be in the city, and blessed shall you be in the field….” (Deut 28:1-3 ESV)

Further down we read the parallel antithesis:

“But if you will not obey the voice of the Lord your God or be careful to do all his commandments and his statutes that I command you today, then all these curses shall come upon you and overtake you. Cursed shall you be in the city, and cursed shall you be in the field…” (Deut. 28:15-16 ESV)

Psalm 1 builds on these blessings and curses:

“Blessed is the man who walks not in the counsel of the wicked, nor stands in the way of sinners, nor sits in the seat of scoffers…” (Ps. 1:1 ESV)

The job description of a prophet in the Old Testament focused on reminding people of the consequences of ignoring their covenantal obligations.

Why then did Job, who was a righteous man under the law, suffer? (Job 1:1)

One answer is that existence of evil (Job 1:9). Another answer is the foolishness of men and women (Prov 1:7). The best answer is that we born in sin and require God’s intervention to obey the law. We read:

“For I know that my Redeemer lives, and at the last he will stand upon the earth. And after my skin has been thus destroyed, yet in my flesh I shall see God, whom I shall see for myself, and my eyes shall behold, and not another…” (Job 19:25-27 ESV)

The possibility of a redeemer is prophesied by Moses (Deut 18:15) and hinted at in God’s core values expressed immediately on giving the law in the form of forgiveness (Exod 34:7). But King David, in his prayer asking for forgiveness, most clearly sees God’s role in our moral condition when he writes:

“Create in me a clean heart, O God, and renew a right spirit within me. Cast me not away from your presence, and take not your Holy Spirit from me.” (Ps. 51:10-11 ESV)

David recognized that divine intervention was required for human compliance with the law.

God later intervened through the death and resurrection of Jesus Christ (1 Cor 15:3-10). Consequently, our moral purity rests on the work of Christ.  In Christ and Christ alone, we are blessed to live within God’s law and able in true humility to worship God.

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Prayer Day 30: A Christian Guide to Spirituality by Stephen W. Hiemstra

Available on Amazon.com
Available on Amazon.com

Almighty Father, beloved Son, Holy Spirit. Bless us so that we will take your laws into our hearts and follow them in our daily lives. May sin and evil not attract us. May our friends practice righteousness and may we follow their example. Guide us with songs of righteousness and holy prayers (Ps 1:1–2). Let us honor your holy boundaries and remove the sin from our lives. To you and you alone be the glory. Amen.

Padre Todopoderoso, Hijo Amado, Espíritu Santo. Bendícenos para que podamos llevar a tus leyes en nuestros corazones y seguirlas en nuestros diario vivir. Que el pecado y la maldad no nos atraigan. Que nuestros amigos practiquen rectitud y que sigamos su ejemplo. Guíanos con cánticos de rectitud y oraciones santas (Sal. 1:1-2). Que podamos honrar tus limitaciones santas y quita el pecado de nuestras vidas. Para Tí y sólo a Tí sea la gloria, Amén.

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Prayer Day 12: A Christian Guide to Spirituality by Stephen W. Hiemstra

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Heavenly Father. We praise you for Christ’s faithful example in life, death, and resurrection. In the power of your Holy Spirit, banish our doubt; prosper our faith; heal our sin-sick souls; and grant us peace. In Jesus’s name, Amen.

Padre Celestial. Te alabamos por el ejemplo fiel de Jesús en la vida, la muerte, y la resurrección. En el poder de tu Espíritu Santo, desterrar nuestras dudas; prosperar nuestra fe; sanar nuestras almas enfermas de pecado; y dar nos paz. En el nombre de Jesús oramos, Amén.

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Prayer Day 6: A Christian Guide to Spirituality by Stephen W. Hiemstra

Available on Amazon.com
Available on Amazon.com

Heavenly Father. We praise you for shepherding us and resting with us in lush gardens. Feed our hungering and thirsting souls as we confront sickness and death. Shelter us in your strong arms as we shelter the weak among us. Prosper us in righteousness as we model your love to those around us. Grant us your mercy through the storms of life until you lead us home (Ps 23). In the name of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit, Amen.

Padre Celestial. Te alabamos por pastoreando nos y descansando en medio de exuberantes jardines. Alimentar nuestras almas hambre y sed cuando nos enfrentamos con la enfermedad y la muerte. Da nos refugio en tus brazos fuertes mientras nos damos refugio a los débiles entre nosotros. Da nos tu misericordia a través de las tormentas de la vida hasta que nos llevamos a casa (Ps 23). En el nombre del Padre, el Hijo, y el Espíritu Santo, Amen.

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Galatians 5: Healthy Boundaries

Fruits by Stephen W. Hiemstra
Art by Stephen W. Hiemstra

By Stephen W. Hiemstra

But the fruit of the Spirit is love, joy, peace, patience, kindness,

goodness, faithfulness, gentleness, self-control;

against such things there is no law (Gal 5:22-23 ESV).

An interesting conversation going on in missionary circles concerns the definition of a Christian.  Is a Christian someone who has been baptized and confirmed?  Or, is a Christian someone has consistently grown closer to Christ as a disciple?  While only God knows truly who is saved, the definition of a Christian is important in understanding the role and articulation of the institutional church.  This is particularly a problem in non-western countries where persecution threatens both life and livelihood.

In Paul’s ministry among the Galatians, the question of who is a Christian was upfront and personal.  Is a Christian a sect within Judaism or an independent faith?  Being circumcised identified one with the Jewish faith, but in the first century it more importantly marked one politically as a Jewish nationalist.  And it was also not just something that your wife would notice.  Entry into the temple in Jerusalem required a ritual bath (purified, e.g. Acts 24:18) and sports in the gentile world were also frequently practiced “in your birthday suit”!  Both activities made circumcision a public event in a way that we might overlook today.

How does Paul answer the question of who is a Christian?  Ironically, Paul stands with Moses when he said:  Circumcise therefore the foreskin of your heart (Deuteronomy 10:16).  In Paul’s words:  For in Christ Jesus neither circumcision nor uncircumcision counts for anything, but only faith working through love (v 6).  Neither Moses nor Paul accepted the idea that by itself circumcision placed any claim on God.  Faith working through love, as Paul says, speaks to changes in the heart.

Paul’s comments have immediate application in our cultural environment.  In our context, Paul would say:  neither baptized nor unbaptized; neither communicant nor non-communicant; counts for anything.  Going through the motions to join a church does not count.  The question remains: is your heart moving closer to Christ or not?

Movements of the heart might seem rather private but this does not imply that one can be a Christian incognito (secret Christian).  Our freedom in Christ is freedom to love our neighbors as ourselves (v 14).  Do you think that your neighbor will notice?  If money and time are involved, do you think your spouse would notice?  How about your kids?

In drawing healthy boundaries, Paul offers both a list of vices (vv 19-21) and a list of virtues (vv 22-23).  Interestingly, while the list of virtues will not guarantee admission to heaven, practicing the vices will keep you out (v 21).  In Paul’s mind, grace includes law, but is not limited by it.

Questions

  1. How did the snow affect your week?
  2. How was your week? Did anything special happen?
  3. Do you have questions from chapter 4?
  4. What is freedom; what is slavery in Paul’s eye? (v 1)
  5. What is Paul’s point about circumcision and the law? (vv 2-6)
  6. What does Moses say about circumcision? (Deuteronomy 10:16-17) Why does he talk about bribing God?
  7. Why does circumcision require the whole law be obeyed? (v 3; Deuteronomy 27:1-3)
  8. One interpretation of Paul’s, advocated for example by Charles Finney (The Spirit-Filled Life (Orig pub 1861). New Kensington:  Whitaker House. 1982), was to compare grace to pledging guilty before a judge while law was like pledging innocent. Why is this legal analogy helpful?
  9. What is Paul’s argument in verse 7? (Hint: vv 7-11)
  10. What is the offense of the cross that Paul refers to? (v 11; 1 Corinthians 1:17-18)
  11. What is the freedom in Christ that Paul talks about? (vv 13-14) Can you be free in Christ and have no one notice?
  12. What does it mean to walk by the spirit or, alternatively, walk by the flesh? (v 16)
  13. How does the law and gospel relate? (v 18)
  14. What are the works of the flesh? (vv 19-21)
  15. How do the works of the flesh relate to salvation? (v 21)
  16. What are the fruits of the spirit? (vv 22-23)
  17. How does the cross of Christ relate to the works of the flesh? (v 24)

Galatians 5: Healthy Boundaries

Also see:

Galatians 6: Parting Comments 

Galatians 4: Slave and Free 

Christian Spirituality 

Looking Back 

Other ways to engage online:

Author site: http://www.StephenWHiemstra.net, Publisher site: http://www.T2Pneuma.com.

Newsletter at: http://bit.ly/2zRkNMJ

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May: Addictions Need not Enslave

Art by Stephen W. Hiemstra
Art by Stephen W. Hiemstra

Gerald G. May. 1988.  Addiction & Grace:  Love and Spirituality in the Healing of Addictions.  New York:  HarperOne.

Review by Stephen W. Hiemstra

The goodbyes this week to beloved actor and director, Philip Seymour Hoffman (July 23, 1967 – February 2, 2014) place the specter of addiction and death in the public eye. This week it is heroin addiction but the drug of choice changes over time.  In a society that has trouble placing limits on personal freedom (boundaries) of any sort, the pain of addiction bites particularly hard because we all share a bit in the blame.

What is addiction anyway?

In his book, Addiction and Grace, Gerald May (June 12, 1940- April 12, 2005), a Christian psychiatrist specializing in addictions, defined addiction as:

Any compulsive, habitual behavior that limits the freedom of human desire.  It is caused by the attachment, or nailing, of desire to specific objects (24-25).

May notes that true addiction has 5 characteristics:

  1. Tolerance,
  2. Withdrawal symptoms,
  3. Self-deception,
  4. Loss of willpower, and
  5. Distortion of attention (26).

On reading May’s description in 2011, I became aware of my own addiction—stress.  I loved my work too much—it had become an obsession—evidence of tolerance.  Taking time off away from the office was harder on me than the pounding stress—evidence of withdrawal symptoms.  I told myself that I was advancing my career—this was a self-deception.  I could not help myself; I had to work hard—evidence of loss of willpower.  Was I aware of it?  No—I was convinced that other people were the problem in my career advancement.

When I became aware of this addiction, I took it to the Lord in prayer and committed myself to practicing Sabbath rest.  May advises—the only cure for an addiction is to stop the cycle (177).  Not working on Sunday (not even for God) has freed up time for family; other interests; and self-respect.  I continue to feel the urge to work, but with God’s help my stress addiction is over.

What are you addicted to?

Notice that May’s definition of addiction talks about freedom.  May writes:

Free will is given to us for a purpose: so that we may choose freely, without coercion or manipulation, to love God in return, and to love one another in a similarly perfect way…addiction uses up desire…sucking our life energy into specific obsessions and compulsions, leaving less and less energy available for other people and other pursuits.  Spiritually, addiction is a deep-seated form of idolatry [idolatry is anything that substitutes for God] (13).

Psychologists talk about addiction as an attachment disorder.  In order to be free in any sense of the word, we need to be detached from our desires enough to regulate them (14).  This is why the first of the Ten Commandments reads:

I am the LORD your God, who brought you out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of slavery. You shall have no other gods before me (Exodus 20:2-3 ESV).

The other gods here are things that we become addicted to.  What the Bible is saying is that addiction is a form of slavery from which God can free us.  In my experience, freedom is harder than slavery for many people because they are enslaved to their passions—work, bad relationships, substances, expensive toys, compulsive sex, money, and so on.  My stress addiction is a typical case because our minds are rigged to facilitate habit formation—we all have addictions, albeit not all addictions are life-threatening (57).

Addiction and Grace is written in 8 chapters:

  1. Desire:  Addiction and Human Freedom.
  2. Experience: The Qualities of Addiction.
  3. Mind:  The Psychological Nature of Addiction.
  4. Body: The Neurological Nature of Addiction.
  5. Spirit: The Theological Nature of Addiction.
  6. Grace:  The Qualities of Mercy.
  7. Empowerment:  Grace and Will in Overcoming Addiction.

These chapters are preceded by a preface and followed by various notes.

Clearly, I have left out many of the details that May generously supplies.  Anyone struggling with addiction (or who cares about someone who does) will find this book a godsend.  I clearly did.

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