2 Corinthians 9: The Spiritual Gift of Generosity

Art by Stephen W. Hiemstra
Art by Stephen W. Hiemstra

“For as the rain and the snow come down from heaven and do not return there but water the earth, making it bring forth and sprout, giving seed to the sower and bread to the eater, so shall my word be that goes out from my mouth; it shall not return to me empty, but it shall accomplish that which I purpose, and shall succeed in the thing for which I sent it. (Isaiah 55:10-11 ESV)

By Stephen W. Hiemstra

The Prophet Isaiah draws a parallel between the generosity of God in watering the earth and the word of God powerfully accomplishing his purposes.  Because generosity is a tangible expression of love, is Isaiah, in fact, saying that love accomplishes God’s purposes?  Jesus thought so (Matthew 5:44-46).

In chapter 9, Paul continues his discussion of the drought relief fund for Jerusalem that he has been discussing.  Garland [1] noted these parallels between chapters 8 and 9 forming an inclusio (a literary frame around the discussion):

  Chapter

Text

8

9

The grace of God 8:1 9:14
Ministry/Service 8:1 9:12-13
Test 8:2 9:13
Generosity 8:2 9:11,13
Abound 8:2 9:12

This is inclusio is important because other commentaries have argued for a second letter being inserted in chapter 9 because they could not understand Paul’s apparent repetition.  Paul pauses in his letter to explain the relief fund, in part, because his Greek audience does not understand the Jewish concern for helping the poor.

For example, in verse 9 Paul paraphrases:  You shall give to him freely, and your heart shall not be grudging when you give to him, because for this the LORD your God will bless you in all your work and in all that you undertake. (Deuteronomy 15:10)  Like the Romans, the Greeks saw only one reason for charity—to receive praise and honor from those receiving it.  Praise and honor from poor people was not interesting to them.  Praise and honor from God for offering charity to the poor, by contrast, was another matter.  In verses 7-12, Paul reminds them of God’s interest in generosity, especially to the poor, 4 times!

Paul drives his point home by reminding the Corinthians that the saints in Jerusalem will be praying for them (v 14) [2].

Generosity.  Do we count both the blessings and the cost when we donate money?  Paul reminds us:  God loves a cheerful giver (v 7)

[1] David E. Garland. 1999.  The New American Commentary:  2 Corinthians.  Nashville:  B&H. page 400.

[2] Later, in his letter to the Romans (15:30-31), Paul worries that the Corinthian gift will not be accepted.

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1 Corinthians 16: Unity and Diversity in Christ

Winter Trees by Sharron Beg
Winter Trees by Sharron Beg

By Stephen W. Hiemstra

Be watchful, stand firm in the faith, act like men, be strong. Let all that you do be done in love…If anyone has no love for the Lord, let him be accursed. Our Lord, come! (1 Corinthians 16:13-14,22 ESV)

Many study groups fast forward through the final chapters in the Apostle Paul’s letters thinking that the names listed are difficult to pronounce and the overt lesson is over.  This is a mistake.

In Chapter 16 Paul deals with at least 3 very controversial issues in the church:

  • Mission giving and financial integrity;
  • Support and acceptance of church leaders; and
  • Boundaries on the Christian community.

Missions and Financial Integrity

The Jerusalem council imposed 4 requirements on Gentile converts: …abstain from what has been sacrificed to idols, and from blood, and from what has been strangled, and from sexual immorality (Acts15:29 ESV) [1].  Paul mentions only one requirement:  remember the poor (Galatians 2:10). By that, he particularly meant the poor saints in Jerusalem.  He reasoned: For if the Gentiles have come to share in their spiritual blessings, they ought also to be of service to them in material blessings (Romans 15:27 ESV).

It is interesting that Paul, who took no support from the church in Corinth (1 Corinthians 9), was especially careful to request that they appoint their own trustees for the collection for the poor saints in Jerusalem (v 3).

Church Leaders

In the middle of church divisions, Paul sends in a turnaround team and highlights the work of theologically sound, local leaders.  In commending the household of Stephanas, he highlights their spirituality (first converts) and conduct:  they have devoted themselves to the service of the saints—be subject to such as these, and to every fellow worker and laborer (vv 15-16)

Boundaries on the Church

While the church is open to everyone, the church does not consist of everyone.  Paul states:  If anyone has no love for the Lord, let him be accursed. Our Lord, come! (v 22) [2]  The mark of a Christian is love for the Lord, not affiliation or family ties.  Given this presupposition, Paul advises:  Be watchful, stand firm in the faith, act like adults, be strong. Let all that you do be done in love (vv 13-14).

The mention of the household of Stephanas (v 15) as well as Aquila and Prisca (v 19) [3] underscores the importance of family ministries, especially husband-wife teams, in the early church.

Footnotes

[1] This list contains 3 food requirements and behavioral requirement.  Each requirement focuses on sins of the body.

[2] “Our Lord come” is written in Aramic (μαράνα θά; Marantha) suggesting again that the earliest confessions included statements of Christ’s divinity and expectations of the second coming.

[3] Also:  Acts 18:2,18, 26;  Romans 16:3, and 2 Timothy 4:19.

Questions

1 Corinthians 16: Unity and Diversity in Christ

First Corinthians 15

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1 Corinthians 9: Strategic Tentmaking

Art by Stephen W. Hiemstra
Art by Stephen W. Hiemstra

By Stephen W. Hiemstra

After this Paul left Athens and went to Corinth. And he found a Jew named Aquila, a native of Pontus, recently come from Italy with his wife Priscilla, because Claudius had commanded all the Jews to leave Rome. And he went to see them, and because he was of the same trade he stayed with them and worked, for they were tentmakers by trade. And he reasoned in the synagogue every Sabbath, and tried to persuade Jews and Greeks (Acts 18:1-4 ESV).

Tentmaking refers to evangelists and pastors who work outside the church to support their ministry.  The term arises from the ministry of the Apostle Paul who worked presumably making tents to support his evangelism—especially while he was in Corinth.  Tentmaking is common among missionaries and in areas of the world where full-time Christian ministry is either impractical or unaccepted.

The Greek term translated as tentmaker, σκηνοποιός also translates as leather worker or stage hand (BDAG 6700).  The root word, σκηνὴ, translate as:  transcendent celestial tent, tent, dwelling metaphorically…earthly Tabernacle (BDAG 6698).  The strong biblical association of God’s dwelling place with the tabernacle in the Old Testament begs the question as to whether Paul actually uses the term metaphorically to refer to himself as an evangelist.  Elsewhere, for example, he refers to our bodies as the temple of God (1 Corinthians 9:16).  However, in this context tentmaking is described as a trade and the idea that Paul (or his friends) worked in the theater is rejected by commentators because the theater was an overtly gentile profession not accepted by Jews [1].

Paul’s long diatribe on his right to earn a living from his evangelistic ministry (vv 1-14) ends rather oddly.  He says he possess this right to earn a living, but then says:  But I have made no use of any of these rights, nor am I writing these things to secure any such provision. For I would rather die than have anyone deprive me of my ground for boasting (v 15).  Why does Paul boast that he is a volunteer?

Blomberg [2] observes that Greek and Roman philosophers and religious teachers earned their living in 4 ways:  fees, living with a patron, begging, and working a trade.  The fact that Paul worked as tentmaker left the impression that maybe he really was not an apostle—the implication was if he was any good he would charge for his services!  Today this might be said about a lay pastor who was not ordained. So why does Paul boast that he is a volunteer?

Paul’s tentmaking diatribe underscores his lesson in the previous chapter.  There he advises his readers not to eat meat if eating meat would cause other believers to question their faith.  He concludes that lesson saying:  Therefore, if food makes my brother stumble, I will never eat meat, lest I make my brother stumble (1 Corinthians 8:13 ESV).  The strong have a right to eat meat, but for the sake of the weak they should give it up.  In like manner, Paul has a right to earn his living as an evangelist, but for the sake of the Gospel he works as a tentmaker.

Paul’s lesson on tentmaking speaks truth into our times.  If Paul refused to accept patronage because he could not speak the Gospel to the rich in the Corinthian church, what does that say to ministers supported primarily by rich church members today?  Is class privilege quietly accepted in spite of its tension with the Gospel?  What about causes and members not enjoying such privileges?  What about other rights people assert?

Working as a tentmaker allowed Paul  to address the abuse of class privileges in Corinth.  Are we equally willing to address the abuse of class privileges in the church today?

Footnotes

[1] Jesus’ unique association with the word, hypocrite, makes this analysis a bit ironic.  The word, hypocrite, is Greek and translates as actor.  Jesus’ redefinition of a hypocrite as someone who is two-faced was a new use of the word.  Why would Jesus pick this word if he spoke no Greek and, as a Jewish Rabbi, had no association with theater?

[2] Craig L. Blomberg. 1994. The NIV Application Commentary: 1 Corinthians. Grand Rapids: Zondervan. Page 173.

1 Corinthians 9: Strategic Tentmaking

First Corinthians 8

First Corinthians 10

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