Cuneo Examines Exorcism, Part 2

Michael Cuneo, American ExorcismMichael W. Cuneo. 2001. American Exorcism: Expelling Demons in the Land of Plenty. New York: DoubleDay.

Review by Stephen W. Hiemstra

In 2012 as a chaplain intern, the social worker that I worked most closely with referred me to an eighty-year old resident in the retirement center who was bed-ridden. After several visits, the woman confided with me that her dead mother occasionally visited and warned her that she could not trust her siblings in dealing with the estate. Proud of these visits, she broke off contact with her siblings and found herself alone in this world.

Interns are normally expected to be little more a comforting presence and the woman was too old for a psychiatric referral so I decided on a pastoral approach. Because she professed to be a good Baptist, I asked if she was aware that the Bible teaches that the dead are not supposed to talk to the living and vice-versa.[1] Because of the obvious harm perpetrated by this lingering spirit, I advised her: “The next time that your mother visits, ask her—what are doing here?”

In part one of this review, I present an overview of Cuneo’s book. Here in part two, I will examine key issues that he raises about the practice of exorcism.

What is an Exorcism?

Cuneo writes:

“The rite of exorcism itself, according to [Malachi] Martin, is also a process consisting of several more or less distinct stages. At the outset the priest-exorcist is forced to contend with the pretense, a baffling (and sometimes protracted) state in which the demonic present attempts to disguise its true identity and intentions. The breakdown occurs when the demon abandons subterfuge and begins to speak in its own voice; and during the next stage—what Martin refers to as the clash—the exorcist and demon become locked in a harrowing contest of wills for the soul of the possessed. Finally, if everything goes according to plan, the process concludes with the expulsion of the demonic presence.”(20)

Martin was a “breakaway”Jesuit and the author of numerous books, especially Hostage to the Devil. The formal process of exorcism in the Catholic church is found in the Roman Ritual (259-260), which is a formal ceremony requiring the services of a priest and normally requires the approval of a bishop. Outside the Catholic church, exorcism can take a number of forms when performed by Pentecostals, Charismatics, and other Evangelicals as Cuneo chronicles. Muslims and Jews also practice exorcism, but Cuneo limits his research to practices among white American Christians (xiv).

The Issue of Transcendence

The strong influence of secular atheism on the institutional church in our time questions all references to transcendence in scripture and church life. If the physical world is all there is, then how can spiritual beings, such as angels and demons, even exist? Cuneo reports:

“The rite of exorcism, in fact, is the only Catholic rite in which the officiating priest is advised to take an initial stance of incredulity. Rather than assuming possession straightway and proceeding with an exorcism, the priest is supposed to rule out all other possibilities—from organic disorder to psychological pathology to outright fraud.”(12)

The level of skepticism after the Second Vatican Council that Cuneo reports that: “As recently as the mid-nineties here was only one officially appointed priest-exorcist in the entire country…”(257) Informally, however, some priests have always quietly performed exorcisms and some Evangelical groups treat demonic oppression (not formal possession) as a common problem. The most common response of liberal Protestants and Catholics, however, is to view a request for exorcism as akin to requesting a psychiatric referral.

Cuneo’s Experience

In Cuneo’s experience, having observed more than fifty exorcisms, he reports:

“Some of the people who showed up for exorcisms seemed deeply troubled, some mildly troubled, and some hardly troubled at all. The symptoms they complained of—the addictions and compulsions, the violent mood swings, the blurred self-identities, the disturbing visions and somatic sensations—all of this seemed to me fully explainable in social, cultural, medical, and psychological terms…The same with the antics I sometimes witnessed while the exorcisms were actually taking place, the flailing and slithering, the shrieking and moaning, the grimacing and growling—none of this, insofar as I could tell, suggested the presence of demons.”(275-276)

He suggested that exorcism may have a kind of placebo effect (277).

Assessment

Michael Cuneo’s American Exorcism is a fascinating read. His story telling, literature review, and personal interviews surpass anything that I have read about exorcism practices. The more typical author writing in this genre focuses on their own methods and experiences, which leaves the reader wondering whether the author’s work is typical, reliable, authoritative. Practitioners may find helpful advice owning to the wide scope of Cuneo’s work. In any case, Cuneo writes from the perspective of a skeptical Jesuit with a background in sociology. And that’s okay.

References

Marin, Malachi. 1976. Hostage to the Devil. New York: Reader’s Digest Press.

Montenegro, Marcia. 2006. Spellbound: The Paranormal Seduction of Today’s Kids. Colorado Springs: Life Journey.

Footnotes

[1]Deut 18:10-12 (Montenegro 2006, 26). Also: 1 Sam 28.

Cuneo Examines Exorcism, Part 2

Also see:

A Place for Authoritative Prayer

Wicks Seeks Availability Deepens Faith

Vanhoozer: How Do We Understand the Bible? Part 1 

Books, Films, and Ministry

Other ways to engage online:

Author site: http://www.StephenWHiemstra.net, Publisher site: http://www.T2Pneuma.com.

Newsletter at: http://bit.ly/Hebrew_Heart

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Cuneo Examines Exorcism, Part 1

Michael Cuneo, American ExorcismMichael W. Cuneo. 2001. American Exorcism: Expelling Demons in the Land of Plenty. New York: DoubleDay.

Review by Stephen W. Hiemstra

The Exorcist, a 1973 film by William Peter Blatty and directed by William Friedkin,[1] came out during my freshman year in college and I saw it by myself about a year later. I remember the profanity, the projectile vomitting, the crawling around on the ceiling, and the two priests sprinkling holy water and offering incantations. I also remember the ending and the staircase in Georgetown, which still gives me the creeps every time I drive down Canal Road. After the film, I shook with fear all night—I still do not enjoy going to the theater alone.

Introduction

In his book, American Exorcism, Michael Cuneo writes:

“American Exorcism is based on my personal interviews with exorcists and their clients, and my firsthand observation of more than fifty exorcisms…My primary concern is with exorcism as it’s practiced among mainstream, predominantly middle-class Christians—the white-bread sector of American society…I am concerned simply with assessing the cultural significance of exorcism-related beliefs and practices in the contemporary United States, not with passing judgment on their ultimate validity.” (xiv)

Cuneo teaches sociology and anthropology at Fordham University, a Jesuit college in New York.

The Backstory on The Exorcist

Cuneo begins his research on exorcism by summarizing the backstory on Blatty’s film. The exorcism recounted in the film took place, reported in a Washington Post article in August 1949 (Brinkely)  and involved an unidentified, fourteen-year-old boy from Mount Rainer tormented by bizarre phenomena:

“There were scratchings and rappings on his bedroom walls, pieces of fruit and other objects were sent flying in his presence, and his bed mysteriously gyrated across the floor while he tried to sleep.” (5-6)

The parents took the boy to a Protestant minister, but as things worsened they brought him to the Jesuits who had him medically and psychologically evaluated and placed under around-the-clock observation. After no natural causes found, a Jesuit priest was assigned who performed more than twenty exorcisms in Washington and St. Louis. In all but the last of these, the WP reported:

“The boy broke into a violent tantrum of screaming, cursing, and voicing of Latin phrase—a language he had never studied—whenever the priest reached those climatic points of the 27-page [exorcism] ritual in which he commanded the demon to depart.” (6)

After a two-month ordeal, the symptoms disappeared and the boy’s health returned. (5-6) Blatty later sought instruction on the Catholic church’s teaching with respect to demons and tracked down a diary kept by the priest who assisted in these exorcisms, which became background for his film. (6-7)

The film itself raised awareness of the practice of exorcism within the Catholic church and, according to Cuneo, portrayed the priest in a new light as the hero-priest, who placed his own life on the line to rescue those trapped under the influence of Satan. After the reforms under the Second Vatican Council, the priesthood itself badly needed the status upgrade that exorcism provided. (4-5)

Organization

Cuneo writes in sixteen chapters, preceded by acknowledgments and an introduction and followed by conclusions, notes, and an index. These chapters are further divided into these six parts:

  1. The Exorcist as Hero
  2. Entrepreneurs of Exorcism
  3. Charismatic Deliverance Ministry
  4. The Rough-and-Ready School
  5. The Rise of Evangelical Deliverance
  6. Roman Catholic Exorcism (vii-viii)

What is interesting here is that Cuneo explores a wide-range of exorcism practices across different denominations and faith groups.To my knowledge, no one else has written this kind of comprehensive overview of exorcism practices in America through literature review, case studies, interviews, and eye-witness reporting of exorcisms.

Assessment

In part one of this review, I present an overview of Cuneo’s book. In part two, I will examine key issues that he raises about the practice of exorcism.

Michael Cuneo’s American Exorcism is a fascinating read. His story telling, literature review, and personal interviews surpass anything that I have read about exorcism practices. The more typical author writing in this genre focuses on their own methods and experiences, which leaves the reader wondering whether the author’s work is typical, reliable, authoritative. Practitioners may find helpful advice owning to the wide scope of Cuneo’s work. In any case, Cuneo writes from the perspective of a skeptical Jesuit with a background in sociology. And that’s okay.

References

Blatty, William Peter. 1974. William Peter Blatty on ‘The Exorcist’ from Novel to Film. New York: Bantam Books.

Brinkley, Bill. 1949. “Priest Frees Mt. Rainers Boy Reported Held in Devil’s Grip.” Washington Post, August 20. (Cited in Blatty 1974).

Footnotes

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Exorcist_(film).

Cuneo Examines Exorcism, Part 1

Also see:

A Place for Authoritative Prayer

Wicks Seeks Availability Deepens Faith

Vanhoozer: How Do We Understand the Bible? Part 1 

Books, Films, and Ministry

Other ways to engage online:

Author site: http://www.StephenWHiemstra.net, Publisher site: http://www.T2Pneuma.com.

Newsletter at: http://bit.ly/Transcendence_2018

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A Place for Authoritative Prayer

Cover for Simple Faith“In that hour he [Jesus] healed many people
of diseases and plagues and evil spirits,
and on many who were blind he bestowed sight.”
(Luke 7:21 ESV)

By Stephen W. Hiemstra

Richard Foster (1992, 229) describes authoritative prayer with these words:

“In Authoritative Prayer we are calling forth the will of the Father upon the earth. Here we are not so much speaking to God as speaking for God. We are not asking God to do something; rather, we are using the authority of God to command something done.”

As practiced in the church today, authoritative prayer is also referred to as deliverance ministry and, more popularly, as exorcism. Foster’s term, authoritative prayer, is more descriptive of the actual practice and less likely to evoke the baggage that accompanies other terms.

A reluctance to practice authoritative prayer exists among many Christian leaders. I would like to argue here that this reluctance needs to be reassessed because the need for authoritative prayer has grown dramatically in our generation, because authoritative prayer has been unfairly stigmatized and misunderstood, and because authoritative prayer has a legitimate therapeutic place even when other forms of counseling are available.

Background

Jesus practiced authoritative prayer, as most authors recognize. E.P. Sanders (1993, 149), for example writes:

Exorcisms, which are a significant subcategory of healings, deserve fuller discussions. They were very important in Jesus’ culture and also in his own career.

Sanders then proceeds to list twelve scriptural citations where Jesus performs exorcisms[1] and also lists exorcisms performed by others in the New Testament (Sanders 1993, 15). Significantly, Jesus also commissioned the disciples to preach and cast out demons (e.g. Mark 3:14-15).

The early church took the need to cast out demons seriously because virtually all adult converts had previously worshiped pagan idols, which were believed to be demons. The church accordingly commissioned exorcists much the same as deacons and elders. The church has always recognized the need for authoritative prayer, even if some traditions have seldom openly practiced it.

Types of Healing Prayer

Interest in authoritative prayer in the modern period, outside the Pentecostal (charismatic) tradition, started with a Roman Catholic priest by the name of Francis MacNutt in the 1960s, who taught that authoritative prayer could be described as one of four types of healing needing prayer:

  1. Repentance of sin (spiritual healing).
  2. Emotional (or relational) healing.
  3. Physical healing. and
  4. Deliverance (healing from spiritual oppression) (MacNutt 2009, 130).

Distinguishing the different types of healing needs is important because many practitioners lump all healing needs into authoritative prayer and fail to distinguish spiritual oppression (common) from outright possession (rare).[2]

The Postmodern Need for Authoritative Prayer

In the modern period, the influence of rationalism in Christian thought led many to question the reliability of scriptural references to exorcism and other recorded miracles. This over-emphasis on rationalism and personal autonomy seems increasingly out of place in the postmodern period that we live in.

Limits to Autonomy

In my own hospital experience, for example, I noted that about half the patients that I visited with as a chaplain intern working in the emergency department were admitted for reasons that could be classified as preventable, problems arising out of poor lifestyle choices, and other self-destructive behavior. In visiting later with the senior surgeon, I was corrected. He reported that the actual proportion of patients so classified was closer to three-quarters. Consequently, if in the concrete reality of medicine, we are incapable of maintaining our physical health in view of rational information to inform us as to how to accomplish this objective, then how much more incapable are we of maintaining our own spiritual health?

Growth of Suicide Problem

Outside of personal observation, we know from recent reports that the United States is currently experiencing a thirty-year peak in suicides, with the largest increase among men aged 45-64 (Tavernise, 2016). I personally know of two men within that demographic who killed themselves within the past year. If people are killing themselves in record numbers, it is safe to say that spiritual oppression is part of the picture, especially when drug abuse and deviant sexual activity are not indicated, because poverty, depression, and despair do not have to lead to suicide.

New Challenges

Outside of the medical and psychiatric fields, three factors suggest a need for authoritative prayer that could be classified as something new. First, the growth of interest in pagan religions and immigration from countries where animistic religions are commonly practiced show spiritual influences previously absent in the West. Second, the mainstreaming of alternative sexual practices and drug use (and the abuse that often goes with them) has the potential to increase the number of individuals susceptible to spiritual oppression. Third, the discrimination of secular institutions practiced against Christians reduces the number of individuals who are nominally influenced by the church and thereby able to resist other spiritual influences.

The Practice of Authoritative Prayer

A number of approaches have been taken in authoritative prayer. Here I will speak only of my personal experience in assisting a seasoned practitioner who is an ordained Presbyterian pastor in Charlotte, NC.

Setup

A typical session involves someone who has come to the pastor with a request for authoritative prayer. No attempt is made to compel anyone to participate or to accept anyone referred against their will. The session takes place in a private setting, usually a church or living room, and normally the pastor has an assistant, such as myself, who takes notes so that he can focus on the prayer.[3] Parents and other loved ones are invited to join in only if the person feels comfortable with them being there. The person receiving prayer does not need to disclose anything. After introductory conversation, the pastor starts by explaining the purposes of prayer and the scriptural authority being evoked in authoritative prayer.

Object of Prayer

The prayer itself starts with praise of God and the person being prayed over. As Christians, we believe that God is sovereign over all of creation, he is good, and he cares for us. This praise is important because God already knows what is on our minds and has promised to answer the prayers of his people. Our tiniest request from an infinite God provides more power than any spiritual being can resist. Most of the remainder of the prayer is for the benefit of the person being prayed over.

Triage

The prayer then proceeds to triage the spiritual issues that the person being prayed over may be suffering. Perhaps, the spiritual problem has been passed down through family or started with harsh words from someone important to the person. Perhaps, the person has experienced great shame or guilt due to sinful behavior, especially sexual or drug experimentation. Perhaps, the person has been overwhelmed with grief or pain. Perhaps, the person has refused to grow up in some important way or fallen in with bad company or hurt someone close to them or suffered some terrible tragedy.

Response

As this prayer unfolds, the pastor prays with eyes open to observe the person’s reaction and the reactions determine how long particular issues are addressed. This triage process is important because many of the deepest spiritual problems that we face may have been repressed over years and the person may not even be aware of their emotional impact.[4] Because the person need not disclose anything going into prayer or coming out of it, their own awareness and willingness to confess their issues is not in view.[5] As such, authoritative prayer is not a substitute for counseling. In fact, it may be a prelude to counseling because the person may realize their issues need more attention.

Concepts Supporting Authoritative Prayer

A couple of theological concepts inform this method, but are not necessarily required.

Identity in Christ

First, our souls are composed of our will, our mind, our memory, and our social environment. A modern word for soul might be our identity. The idea that our identity is socially held[6] means that when we make Christ the cornerstone of our identity, we are not easily shaken the way that we might be if some other cornerstone were chosen. Treating Christ as a secondary part of our identity does not provide nearly the stability required to resist temptation and evil. As temptation and evil become more prevalent in the postmodern period, the need for this stability is greater than ever.

Parasitic Spirits

Second, the image of an evil spirit being confronted in authoritative prayer is that of a parasite. An evil spirit is parasitic in the sense that it cannot exist independent of its host for very long, much like tick would starve in the absence of blood host. Driving it out therefore risks that the parasite will seek another local host and the prayer must account for this behavior.

Permission Denied

Third, evil spirits are driven out, not by shouting or employing incantations or any special form for prayer, but by denying that they have permission to inhabit the person being prayed over and appealing to the power and authority of God. Evil spirits act like bad lawyers arguing for their rights to oppress a person. Thus, it is important to have the person’s permission to pray because it implies that the demons do not have permission to continue their oppression.

Return to Biblical Authority

The primary reason that many people question the existence of evil spirits is that the spiritual world is itself thought not to exist, a result of an animistic tradition debunked by rational thinking. But if rational thinking is only part of our own thinking, why would it preclude the existence of a spiritual being who is divorcing itself from God? Furthermore, why, if you believe in God, would you then question the existence of other unseen spiritual beings? The Bible treats angels and demons as heralds of Christ himself (e.g. Mark 5:7). Denying their existence is tantamount to denying Christ’s divinity, because Christ treated exorcism as important in his ministry.

References

Foster, Richard J. 1992. Prayer: Find the Heart’s True Home. New York: HaperOne.

Francis MacNutt. 2009. Healing (Orig Pub 1974). Notre Dame: Ave Maria Press.

Jung, C.G. 1955. Modern Man in Search of a Soul (Orig Pub 1933). New York: A Harvest Book.

Sanders, E.P. 1993. The Historical Figure of Jesus. New York: Penguin Books.

Tavernise, Sabrina. 2016. “U.S. Suicide Rate Surges to a 30-Year High” New York Times. April 22. Online: https://nyti.ms/2k9vzFZ, Accessed: 13 March 2017.

[1] Mark 1:23-8/Luke 4:31-37, Mark 1:32-34/Matt 8:16/Luke 4:41, Mark 1:19, Mark 3:11/Luke 6:18,
Mark 3:20-30/Matt 12:22-37/ Luke 11:14-23, Mark 5:1-20/Matt 8:28-34/Luke 8:26-39, Mark 7:24-30/Matt 15:21-28, Mark 9:25/Matt 17:18/Luke 9:42, Matt 4:24, Matt 9:32-34, Luke 8:2, and Luke 8:2. (Sanders 1993, 149-150).

[2] MacNutt (2009, 167) distinguishes deliverance ministry (relief from spiritual oppression) from exorcism (relief from possession).

[3] These notes are taken to allow the pastor to return to issues undercovered at the end of the session and are given to the one being prayed for at the end of the session. No record is retained by the pastor or the assistant.

[4] Jung (1955, 1, 33) saw the unconscious as playing a leading role in neuroses and viewed the unconscious secret as more harmful than one that is conscious.

[5] Jung (1955, 30-31) viewed psychoanalysis as a modern form of confession.

[6] The Alzheimer’s patient is an example of someone whose identity is only held by their loved ones and care givers. When we die, our identity will likewise be held primarily by God.

A Place for Authoritative Prayer

Also see:

Prayer for Healing, Comfort, and Deliverance

A Roadmap of Simple Faith

Other ways to engage online:

Author site: http://www.StephenWHiemstra.net, Publisher site: http://www.T2Pneuma.com.

Newsletter at: http://bit.ly/2vfisNa

 

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